Spurious relationship political science

Spurious Relationships: POSSpring 0W58

spurious relationship political science

Items 1 - 40 of 43 But when seeking inferences of causality, social scientists must beware the possibility of spurious relationships, which falsely imply causation. This is the type of relationship political scientists want to discover. A spurious relationship results when the impact of a third variable explains the effect on both . This PsycholoGenie article explains spurious correlation with examples. The fact is, politicians and political parties generally reside in urban areas, and The expenditure of US on science and technology is related to the suicide rate by.

The reason here is probably the morose weather, which causes her to become lethargic, and also cause road accidents.

Spurious Correlation Explained With Examples

The general assumption is that females are attracted to these students because they are athletes. There is no such correlation though, the fact is that athletes have muscular bodies the third variablefemales are attracted to their strong personality, and hence the misconception.

The fact is, politicians and political parties generally reside in urban areas, and salaries and costs tend to be higher in the cities. There is no correlation between excess population and the crime rate though, the fact is, when more tourists arrive, the population naturally increases, and tourists fall victims to petty crimes like theft by the local public, hence the correlation. This correlation may very well be spurious, for there is no evidence that the more you prepare, the better your answer your tests.

Spurious Correlation Explained With Examples

It is just a generalization. After all, if students are smart enough, they write better answers even little practice. The unseen variable here is where the student prepares.

If the students prepare together in the house, they are bound to get distracted easily and will hamper their preparation. They will also focus and concentrate less on the subject, which leads to poor grades.

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  • Spurious relationship

On the contrary, when they prepare in a quiet environment, like the library, they tend to concentrate better, and so, they write their paper better. No such connection exists; the size of the hands depend on genes. The assumption here is that longer the hair, higher the scores.

spurious relationship political science

However, the lurking factor here may be that female students got better, may be because they worked harder and more sincerely than the guys. Or perhaps, they were seniors who already had some experience due to which they fared better.

Another commonly noted example is a series of Dutch statistics showing a positive correlation between the number of storks nesting in a series of springs and the number of human babies born at that time.

Of course there was no causal connection; they were correlated with each other only because they were correlated with the weather nine months before the observations.

spurious relationship political science

Here the spurious correlation in the sample resulted from random selection of a sample that did not reflect the true properties of the underlying population. Because of this, experimentally identified correlations do not represent causal relationships unless spurious relationships can be ruled out.

spurious relationship political science

Experiments[ edit ] In experiments, spurious relationships can often be identified by controlling for other factors, including those that have been theoretically identified as possible confounding factors. For example, consider a researcher trying to determine whether a new drug kills bacteria; when the researcher applies the drug to a bacterial culture, the bacteria die.

But to help in ruling out the presence of a confounding variable, another culture is subjected to conditions that are as nearly identical as possible to those facing the first-mentioned culture, but the second culture is not subjected to the drug. If there is an unseen confounding factor in those conditions, this control culture will die as well, so that no conclusion of efficacy of the drug can be drawn from the results of the first culture.

spurious relationship political science

On the other hand, if the control culture does not die, then the researcher cannot reject the hypothesis that the drug is efficacious. Non-experimental statistical analyses[ edit ] Disciplines whose data are mostly non-experimental, such as economicsusually employ observational data to establish causal relationships.