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The Image of God is a concept and theological doctrine in Judaism, Christianity, and Sufism of And God created man in His image, in the image of God He created him, Certainly this passage exceeds Genesis in its descriptive nature: 2 . According to Christian doctrine, Jesus acted to repair the relationship with. How, then, should the Assemblies of God respond to transgender persons? . Genesis –25describes the initial relationship between woman and man with .. their nature in the course of their worship and ministry to the church, for men. If the Bible is our guide, then God's design for gender is a gigantic young David in his “armor-carrier” relationships with Saul and Jonathan. Just as I know myself to be a man, transgender people know (and medical This diversity, not some oppressive and artificial monoculture, is how God, nature, and.
The stranger who sojourns with you shall be to you as the native among you, and you shall love him as yourself; for you were strangers in the land of Egypt: The gift of freedom and the Promised Land, and the gift of the Covenant on Sinai and the Ten Commandments are therefore intimately linked to the practices which must regulate, in justice and solidarity, the development of Israelite society.
Among the many norms which tend to give concrete expression to the style of gratuitousness and sharing in justice which God inspires, the law of the sabbatical year celebrated every seven years and that of the jubilee year celebrated every fifty years  stand out as important guidelines — unfortunately never fully put into effect historically — for the social and economic life of the people of Israel.
Besides requiring fields to lie fallow, these laws call for the cancellation of debts and a general release of persons and goods: This legislation is designed to ensure that the salvific event of the Exodus and fidelity to the Covenant represents not only the founding principle of Israel's social, political and economic life, but also the principle for dealing with questions concerning economic poverty and social injustices.
This principle is invoked in order to transform, continuously and from within, the life of the people of the Covenant, so that this life will correspond to God's plan. To eliminate the discrimination and economic inequalities caused by socio-economic changes, every seven years the memory of the Exodus and the Covenant are translated into social and juridical terms, in order to bring the concepts of property, debts, loans and goods back to their deepest meaning.
The precepts of the sabbatical and jubilee years constitute a kind of social doctrine in miniature. They show how the principles of justice and social solidarity are inspired by the gratuitousness of the salvific event wrought by God, and that they do not have a merely corrective value for practices dominated by selfish interests and objectives, but must rather become, as a prophecy of the future, the normative points of reference to which every generation in Israel must conform if it wishes to be faithful to its God.
These principles become the focus of the Prophets' preaching, which seeks to internalize them. God's Spirit, poured into the human heart — the Prophets proclaim — will make these same sentiments of justice and solidarity, which reside in the Lord's heart, take root in you cf.
Then God's will, articulated in the Decalogue given on Sinai, will be able to take root creatively in man's innermost being. This process of internalization gives rise to greater depth and realism in social action, making possible the progressive universalization of attitudes of justice and solidarity, which the people of the Covenant are called to have towards all men and women of every people and nation.
The principle of creation and God's gratuitous action The reflection of the Prophets and that found in the Wisdom Literature, in coming to the formulation of the principle that all things were created by God, touch on the first manifestation and the source itself of God's plan for the whole of humanity.
In Israel's profession of faith, to affirm that God is Creator does not mean merely expressing a theoretical conviction, but also grasping the original extent of the Lord's gratuitous and merciful action on behalf of man. In fact, God freely confers being and life on everything that exists. Man and woman, created in his image and likeness cf. It is in the free action of God the Creator that we find the very meaning of creation, even if it has been distorted by the experience of sin.
In fact, the narrative of the first sin cf. Disobedience to God means hiding from his loving countenance and seeking to control one's life and action in the world. Breaking the relation of communion with God causes a rupture in the internal unity of the human person, in the relations of communion between man and woman and of the harmonious relations between mankind and other creatures.
It is in this original estrangement that are to be sought the deepest roots of all the evils that afflict social relations between people, of all the situations in economic and political life that attack the dignity of the person, that assail justice and solidarity.Nature or Nurture - Are People Born Gay?
In Jesus Christ the decisive event of the history of God with mankind is fulfilled The benevolence and mercy that inspire God's actions and provide the key for understanding them become so very much closer to man that they take on the traits of the man Jesus, the Word made flesh. In the Gospel of Saint Luke, Jesus describes his messianic ministry with the words of Isaiah which recall the prophetic significance of the jubilee: Jesus therefore places himself on the frontline of fulfilment, not only because he fulfils what was promised and what was awaited by Israel, but also in the deeper sense that in him the decisive event of the history of God with mankind is fulfilled.
Jesus, in other words, is the tangible and definitive manifestation of how God acts towards men and women. The love that inspires Jesus' ministry among men is the love that he has experienced in his intimate union with the Father. Jesus announces the liberating mercy of God to those whom he meets on his way, beginning with the poor, the marginalized, the sinners. He invites all to follow him because he is the first to obey God's plan of love, and he does so in a most singular way, as God's envoy in the world.
Jesus' self-awareness of being the Son is an expression of this primordial experience. The Son has been given everything, and freely so, by the Father: His in turn is the mission of making all men sharers in this gift and in this filial relationship: For Jesus, recognizing the Father's love means modelling his actions on God's gratuitousness and mercy; it is these that generate new life.
It means becoming — by his very existence — the example and pattern of this for his disciples. Jesus' followers are called to live like him and, after his Passover of death and resurrection, to live also in him and by him, thanks to the superabundant gift of the Holy Spirit, the Consoler, who internalizes Christ's own style of life in human hearts.
The revelation of Trinitarian love With the unceasing amazement of those who have experienced the inexpressible love of God cf.
He who did not spare his own Son but gave him up for us all, will he not also give us all things with him? Similar language is used also by Saint John: The Face of God, progressively revealed in the history of salvation, shines in its fullness in the Face of Jesus Christ crucified and risen from the dead. Father, Son, and Holy Spirit; truly distinct and truly one, because God is an infinite communion of love. God's gratuitous love for humanity is revealed, before anything else, as love springing from the Father, from whom everything draws its source; as the free communication that the Son makes of this love, giving himself anew to the Father and giving himself to mankind; as the ever new fruitfulness of divine love that the Holy Spirit pours forth into the hearts of men cf.
By his words and deeds, and fully and definitively by his death and resurrection, Jesus reveals to humanity that God is Father and that we are all called by grace to become his children in the Spirit cf. Meditating on the gratuitousness and superabundance of the Father's divine gift of the Son, which Jesus taught and bore witness to by giving his life for us, the Apostle John grasps its profound meaning and its most logical consequence.
The commandment of mutual love shows how to live in Christ the Trinitarian life within the Church, the Body of Christ, and how to transform history until it reaches its fulfilment in the heavenly Jerusalem.
The commandment of mutual love, which represents the law of life for God's people, must inspire, purify and elevate all human relationships in society and in politics. Trinitarian love, the origin and goal of the human person The revelation in Christ of the mystery of God as Trinitarian love is at the same time the revelation of the vocation of the human person to love.
This revelation sheds light on every aspect of the personal dignity and freedom of men and women, and on the depths of their social nature. In the communion of love that is God, and in which the Three Divine Persons mutually love one another and are the One God, the human person is called to discover the origin and goal of his existence and of history.
It follows, then, that if man is the only creature on earth that God has willed for its own sake, man can fully discover his true self only in a sincere giving of himself cf.
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Christian revelation shines a new light on the identity, the vocation and the ultimate destiny of the human person and the human race. Every person is created by God, loved and saved in Jesus Christ, and fulfils himself by creating a network of multiple relationships of love, justice and solidarity with other persons while he goes about his various activities in the world.
Human activity, when it aims at promoting the integral dignity and vocation of the person, the quality of living conditions and the meeting in solidarity of peoples and nations, is in accordance with the plan of God, who does not fail to show his love and providence to his children.
The pages of the first book of Sacred Scripture, which describe the creation of man and woman in the image and likeness of God cf. The Book of Genesis provides us with certain foundations of Christian anthropology: This vision of the human person, of society and of history is rooted in God and is ever more clearly seen when his plan of salvation becomes a reality.
The salvation offered in its fullness to men in Jesus Christ by God the Father's initiative, and brought about and transmitted by the work of the Holy Spirit, is salvation for all people and of the whole person: It concerns the human person in all his dimensions: It begins to be made a reality already in history, because what is created is good and willed by God, and because the Son of God became one of us.
Its completion, however, is in the future, when we shall be called, together with all creation cf. Rom 8to share in Christ's resurrection and in the eternal communion of life with the Father in the joy of the Holy Spirit. This outlook shows quite clearly the error and deception of purely immanentistic visions of the meaning of history and in humanity's claims to self-salvation.
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The salvation offered by God to his children requires their free response and acceptance. In fact, the divine plan of salvation does not consign human creatures to a state of mere passivity or of lesser status in relation to their Creator, because their relationship to God, whom Jesus Christ reveals to us and in whom he freely makes us sharers by the working of the Holy Spirit, is that of a child to its parent: Jn ; Gal 4: The verse preceding 2 Enoch This verse is quite similar to Genesis 1: The Pseudepigrapha's contributions to the discussion of the Imago Dei as presented in Genesis 1: On the one hand, 2 Enoch 44 offers modern readers the understanding the imago dei is reflected in the face—possibly, simply meaning the very being of a human person—of a human, while 2 Enoch 65, on the other hand, suggests human beings are made in the Image of God, but it, like Genesis 1: Apocrypha[ edit ] When considering extra-biblical texts, the Apocryphaa collection of non-authoritative texts with a widespread debate about canonicity, contains key insight into understanding Image of God language.
The Imago Dei is mentioned scarcely within the Apocrypha. There are only a couple of passages that explicitly use "image" terminology to describe humanity as the Imago Dei: The Wisdom of Solomon 2: Wisdom of Solomon 2: The Aprocrypha mirrors the language brought about in Genesis 1: This theme is repeated in Wisdom of Solomon in 1: Wisdom of Solomon 1: God did not make death, and he does not delight in the death of the living.
For he created all things so that they might exist Wisdom of Solomon 2: For God created man to be immortal, and made him to be an image of his own eternity. The righteous, because they are made in the image of God, can rest in the full hope of eternal life. The wicked, because they choose to participate in the company of the devil, are subject to death.
Sirach adds to the end, that man receives the strength of God. There is much discussion of what it means to say that God created man in his own image and likeness; commentators are divided. The words of vv. Another passage in the Apocrypha comes out of 2 Esdras 8: In context, this passage is a cry to the Lord declaring favor over humankind.
The author compares man, made in the likeness of God, to the farmer's seed, and declares that man is worth more. God would not allow man to reap the same consequences as the farmer's seed when the rain has ceased or flooded. But people, who have been formed by your hands and are called your own image because they are made like you, and for whose sake you have formed all things — have you also made them like the farmer's seed? This is perhaps a mirror of the dominion claim found in Genesis 1: According to 2 Esdras, God surrounds man with the creation of the world for the sake of man and thus, he may have mercy on man for he is "called your own image…" 2 Esdras 8: Interpretation[ edit ] There have been many interpretations of the idea of God's image from ancient times until today, and Biblical scholars still have no consensus about the meaning of the term.
The remainder of this article focuses on Christian interpretations of the term. To assert that humans are created in the image of God may mean to recognize some special qualities of human nature which allow God to be made manifest in humans. For humans to have a conscious recognition of having been made in the image of God may mean that they are aware of being that part of the creation through whom God's plans and purposes best can be expressed and actualized; humans, in this way, can interact creatively with the rest of creation.
The moral implications of the doctrine of Imago Dei are apparent in the fact that, if humans are to love God, then humans must love other humans whom God has created cf.
The human likeness to God can also be understood by contrasting it with that which does not image God, i. We may say that humans differ from all other creatures because of the self-reflective, rational nature of their thought processes - their capacity for abstract, symbolic as well as concrete deliberation and decision-making.
This capacity gives the human a centeredness and completeness which allows the possibility for self-actualization and participation in a sacred reality cf. However, despite the fact that according to this concept the human is created in God's image, the Creator granted the first true humans a freedom to reject a relationship with the Creator that manifested itself in estrangement from God, as the narrative of the Fall Adam and Eve exemplifies, thereby rejecting or repressing their spiritual and moral likeness to God.
The ability and desire to love one's self and others, and therefore God, can become neglected and even opposed. The desire to repair the Imago Dei in one's life can be seen as a quest for a wholeness, or one's "essential" self, as described and exemplified in Christ's life and teachings.
According to Christian doctrine, Jesus acted to repair the relationship with the Creator and freely offers the resulting reconciliation as a gift. Also in 1 Corinthians Also in Romans 8: And also in 2 Corinthians 4: For the past 2, years, theologians have examined the difference between the concepts of the "image of God" and the "likeness of God" in human nature. Origen viewed the image of God as something given at creation, while the likeness of God as something bestowed upon a person at a later time.
The theologian Irenaeus made a distinction between God's image and his likeness by pointing to Adam's supernatural endowment bestowed upon him by the Spirit. As Irenaeus' view progressed, what eventually arose was: The image was the human's natural resemblance to God, the power of reason and will. The likeness was a donum superadditum—a divine gift added to basic human nature.
This likeness consisted of the moral qualities of God, whereas the image involved the natural attributes of God. When Adam fell, he lost the likeness, but the image remained fully intact. Humanity as humanity was still complete, but the good and holy being was spoiled. The image is just that, mankind is made in the image of God, whereas the likeness is a spiritual attribute of the moral qualities of God.
The former referred to a natural, innate resemblance to God and the latter referred to the moral attributes God's attributes that were lost in the fall.
First, there is no "and" joining "in our image" with "after our likeness. It is common in speech and writing to repeat an idea using two different words to give reinforcement to the given idea.
In this case the author did not intend to distract us from the idea but rather to insert a focal point. Historical context[ edit ] Scholars still debate the extent to which external cultures influenced the Old Testament writers and their ideas. Mesopotamian epics contain similar elements in their own stories, such as the resting of the deity after creation.
Christianity quickly came into contact with the philosophical trends and ideas of the Greek-speaking Mediterranean, as displayed in Acts.
Some Christians sought to marry Greco-Roman philosophy with Jewish tradition in an effort to appeal to Gentiles and explain the existence of Christ. Just as some Christians argued that the Old Testament prophecies had prepared Jews for Christ, others argued that the classic philosophers also paved the way for Christian revelation for Gentiles.
Aristotelian philosophy and an emphasis on applying rationality and reason to theology played a part in developing scholasticism, a movement whose main goals were to establish systematic theology and illustrate why Christianity was inherently logical and rational. Reformation theologianslike Martin Lutherfocused their reflections on the dominant role mankind had over all creation in the Garden of Eden before the fall of man.
The Imago Dei, according to Luther, was the perfect existence of man and woman in the garden: Emil Brunnera twentieth century Swiss Reformed theologian, wrote that "the formal aspect of human nature, as beings 'made in the image of God", denotes being as Subject, or freedom; it is this which differentiates humanity from the lower creation.
Regarding the Imago Dei, he writes, "Its nature as an image has to do with the fact that it goes beyond itself and manifests something that it is not…. It is the dynamic that sets the human being in motion towards the totally Other.
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Hence it means the capacity for relationship; it is the human capacity for God. While some would argue this is appropriate, J. Richard Middleton argued for a reassessment of the Biblical sources to better understand the original meaning before taking it out of context and applying it.
Substantive, Relational and Functional. The substantive view locates the image of God within the psychological or spiritual makeup of the human being. This view holds that there are similarities between humanity and God, thus emphasizing characteristics that are of shared substance between both parties. Some proponents of the substantive view uphold that the rational soul mirrors the divine.
What is important is that the substantive view sees the image of God as present in humanity whether or not an individual person acknowledges the reality of the image.
The substantive view of the image of God has held particular historical precedence over the development of Christian Theology particularly among early Patristic Theologians see Patristicslike Irenaeus and Augustine, and Medieval Theologians, like Aquinas. Irenaeusunlike later Reformation Theologians, believes that the essential nature of humanity was not lost or corrupted by the fall, but the fulfillment of humanity's creation, namely freedom and life, was to be delayed until "the filling out the time of [Adam's] punishment.
Humankind before the fall see Fall of Man was in the image of God through the ability to exercise free will and reason. And we were in the likeness of God through an original spiritual endowment.
While Irenaeus represents an early assertion of the substantive view of the image of God, the specific understanding of the essence of the image of God is explained in great detail by Augustinea fifth century theologian who describes a Trinitarian formula in the image of God. Augustine's Trinitarian structural definition of the image of God includes memory, intellect, and will. Augustine's descriptions of memory, intellect, and will held a dominant theological foothold for a number of centuries in the development of Christian Theology.
Medieval interpretation of the substantive view[ edit ] Aquinasa medieval theologian writing almost years after Augustine, builds on the Trinitarian structure of Augustine but takes the Trinitarian image of God to a different end.
Like Irenaeus and Augustine, Aquinas locates the image of God in humanity's intellectual nature or reason, but Aquinas believes that the image of God is in humanity in three ways. First, which all humanity possess, the image of God is present in humanity's capacity for understanding and loving God, second, which only those who are justified possess, the image is present when humanity actually knows and loves God imperfectly, and thirdly, which only the blessed possess, the image is present when humanity knows and loves God perfectly.
Medieval scholars suggested that the holiness or "wholeness" of humankind was lost after the fall, though free will and reason remained. John Calvin and Martin Luther agreed that something of the Imago Dei was lost at the fall but that fragments of it remained in some form or another, as Luther's Large Catechism article states, "Man lost the image of God when he fell into sin. Furthermore, rabbinic Midrash focuses on the function of image of God in kingship language.