Predator–Prey Relationships | senshido.info
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Predator -prey relationship quantified: power law for animal abundances matches '3/4. Predation is a biological interaction where one organism, the predator, kills and includes a wide variety of feeding methods; and some relationships that result in the prey's death are not generally called predation. The bottom figure (b) illustrates how predator populations change in relation to prey abundance. Some of the most notable examples of population changes.
Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics Abrams supports his arguments with a strong theoretical background beginning with early Lokta-Volterra models and advancing through gaps in current models. Barbosa Pedro, and Ignacio Castellanos, eds. Ecology of predator-prey interactions. It examines several important arguments about the relevance of predation in changing interactions between competitors.
Dawkins, Richard, and John R. Arms races between and within species.
The discussions in this article include, yet reach well beyond, predator-prey interactions. Nonlethal effects in the ecology of predator-prey interactions: What are the ecological effects of anti-predator decision-making? This review helped influence the swing in studies away from density-mediated to trait-mediated interactions.
Behavioral decisions made under the risk of predation: A review and prospectus. Canadian Journal of Zoology This very approachable review is a masterpiece of synthesis and careful writing that stimulated an entire field.
Predator-prey cycles (video) | Ecology | Khan Academy
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Spinner dolphins form a circle around a school of fish and move inwards, concentrating the fish by a factor of Predators of different species sometimes cooperate to catch prey.
In coral reefswhen fish such as the grouper and coral trout spot prey that is inaccessible to them, they signal to giant moray eelsNapoleon wrasses or octopuses. These predators are able to access small crevices and flush out the prey.
Solitary predators have more chance of eating what they catch, at the price of increased expenditure of energy to catch it, and increased risk that the prey will escape. These include speed, agility, stealth, sharp senses, claws, teeth, filters, and suitable digestive systems.
Many predators have acute hearing, and some such as echolocating bats hunt exclusively by active or passive use of sound. Some predators such as snakes and fish-eating birds like herons and cormorants swallow their prey whole; some snakes can unhinge their jaws to allow them to swallow large prey, while fish-eating birds have long spear-like beaks that they use to stab and grip fast-moving and slippery prey.
Lions can attack much larger prey, including elephants, but do so much less often. Predators are often highly specialized in their diet and hunting behaviour; for example, the Eurasian lynx only hunts small ungulates. When prey have a clumped uneven distribution, the optimal strategy for the predator is predicted to be more specialized as the prey are more conspicuous and can be found more quickly;  this appears to be correct for predators of immobile prey, but is doubtful with mobile prey.
This has led to a correlation between the size of predators and their prey. Size may also act as a refuge for large prey. For example, adult elephants are relatively safe from predation by lions, but juveniles are vulnerable. Members of the cat family such as the snow leopard treeless highlandstiger grassy plains, reed swampsocelot forestfishing cat waterside thicketsand lion open plains are camouflaged with coloration and disruptive patterns suiting their habitats.
Female Photuris firefliesfor example, copy the light signals of other species, thereby attracting male fireflies, which they capture and eat. Venom and Evolution of snake venom Many smaller predators such as the box jellyfish use venom to subdue their prey,  and venom can also aid in digestion as is the case for rattlesnakes and some spiders. These changes are explained by the fact that its prey does not need to be subdued. Antipredator adaptation To counter predation, prey have a great variety of defences.
They can try to avoid detection.Predator prey relationships
They can detect predators and warn others of their presence. If detected, they can try to avoid being the target of an attack, for example, by signalling that a chase would be unprofitable or by forming groups. If they become a target, they can try to fend off the attack with defences such as armour, quills, unpalatability or mobbing; and they can escape an attack in progress by startling the predator, shedding body parts such as tails, or simply fleeing.
They can also adopt behaviour that avoids predators by, for example, avoiding the times and places where predators forage. Camouflage and Mimicry Dead leaf mantis 's camouflage makes it less visible to both predators and prey. Syrphid hoverfly misdirects predators by mimicking a waspbut has no sting.