Learn about compact bone, spongy bone, and how osteoporosis occurs. spaces between them become wider, causing an overall weakening of bone 3D Skeletal System: The Atlas, Axis, and Atlanto-Axial Relationship. Name the four bone shapes and give an example of each. 4. Explain the difference between compact and spongy bone, and describe their spatial relationship to. 4) explain the difference between compact and spongy bone, and describe their spatial relationship to each other. spongy bone is always enclosed in compact.
Firstly, these physical techniques give information about the structure and composition of material studied on the microstructural level. Secondly, spectroscopic data are obtained in a non-invasive manner, so the same sample can be examined by various analytical methods.
Thirdly, there is no limit to the size, allowing a study of large area of a sample [ 17 ]. Although the two major techniques offer similar outcomes, Raman analysis has definite advantages.
Raman spectroscopy offers superior spatial resolution 0. In this way Raman techniques enable analysis of biologically important sites such as individual cement lines, individual lamellae, regions around micro cracks, and human dentin tubules, which would be impossible by infrared techniques [ 1819 ]. Infrared absorption of biological molecules, particularly water, makes investigation very difficult [ 20 ].
In contrast to infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy is relatively insensitive to water, allowing analysis of fully hydrated samples, with minimal sample preparation. Nowadays, the newest Raman instruments are able to investigate most of the biological samples, especially bone tissue, in the visible range without fluorescence effect [ 16 ].
Because of heterogeneous nature of bone, a single point in Raman microspectroscopy cannot sufficiently describe chemical composition and structure of the sample.
For this reason, Raman spectral imaging is becoming increasingly popular for the study of complex organized systems, because it gives spatial information on samples [ 2122 ].
What´s the difference between compact bone and spongy bone?
In earlier studies Raman microspectroscopy has been used to determine carbonate to phosphate ratios and phosphate to amide ratios in several tissue types [ 181923 ]. Raman spectral mapping has been used to demonstrate the orientation of mineral and collagen components in osteonal lamellae of the cortical bone [ 24 ] and has been shown to permit imaging of two adjacent orthogonal planes in cortical in order to obtain 3D information [ 25 ].
Systematic errors in the orientation distribution calculations have been minimized by employing a high numerical aperture objective [ 26 ]. Cortical and spongy bone has not always been studied separately.
What´s the difference between compact bone and spongy bone? | Yahoo Answers
Raman microspectroscopy has been applied to compare cortical and spongy bone tissue from the same femur and tibia of standard laboratory mice [ 27 ]. Other authors have presented the potential of Raman microspectroscopy for the intravital study of bone with using bone chamber [ 16 ]. The use of bone chamber in Raman studies allows monitoring changes in composition of bone and biomaterials in living animals over time.
Materials and methods The study materials were five femur heads from patients who underwent osteoporotic fractures below the head of femur. The treatment of choice in the above mentioned patients was hemialloplastic procedure bipolar prosthesis was applied. Since the head of femur consists mainly of spongy bone, this part of bone tissue attracted a great deal of attention.
Difference Between Compact and Spongy Bone | Difference Between | Compact vs Spongy Bone
In the present study, Raman microspectroscopy was employed to analyze the mineral and organic constituents and orientation of collagen fibers in spongy bone tissue of the human head of the femur.
Changes in composition and structure of the spongy bone tissue were illustrated using maps of polarized Raman spectra.
The results demonstrate the versatility of the Raman method as the analytical spectroscopic technique and provide insights into the organization of spongy bone tissue at the microstructural level. Determination of the composition and collagen fibers arrangement permits better understanding of bone physiology and evaluation of the biomechanical properties of bone.
This investigation contributes to development of a method allowing identification of persons at risk of bone fractures. Multiple scattering in turbid bone tissue cause light depolarization and introduces errors in polarized Raman measurements.
Difference Between Compact and Spongy Bone
The use of the smallest depth of field allows minimization of depolarization effects, which is needed for determination of collagen orientation in bone tissue [ 26 ]. Therefore, the measurements were made under a microscope in the high confocality mode. Confocal system improved axial resolution and the depth of field with this objective was 2. Thanks to the above procedure, the Raman spectra were obtained in the same spectral conditions.
During measurements, the sample received 50 mW. The Raman maps of spongy bone tissue were obtained using the motorized in the three axes stage of the microscope allowing to monitor the sample through an optical camera. The analyses of each map gave the same results.
The incident light was linearly polarized optionally with a half-wave plate. The Raman scattered light could be detected in the linear polarization vertical and horizontal direction using polarisers.
Polarization of scattered light allows determination of the orientation of collagen fibers. The Raman maps were obtained by single analysis of each data point. Compact bones, on the other hand, can be found at the outer layer of the bone.
It also forms the outer layer plus the shaft of the long type of bones. Compact bones are also known as cortical bones.
Spongy bones are also known as cancellous bones. Compact and spongy bones are the two main types of osseous tissues. Compact bones are made up of osteons. Osteons are also called Haversian systems.
These osteons make the structure of compact bones. These rod-like units form the outer layer of the compact bones at the long bone. These osteons also contain Haversian canals. These canals contain and carry blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and branches of the nerves.
Spongy bones are made up trabeculae. These trabeculae look like thin threads.
These are not as heavy as the osteons of the compact bones. The formation of trabeculae always depends on which of these bones were mechanically tensioned. Compact bones are heavy, extremely tough, and are formed or stacked in layers.