Relationship between Urbanization and CO2 Emissions Depends . Environmental Science and Pollution Research 24 (2), of the relationship between the urbanization and air pollution. Urbanization, as I mentioned above, is not only the transfer of population from rural areas to urban. Urbanization and Air Pollution: Then and Now Both cause lung problems, among other deleterious effects, and particulate matter reduces visibility. chemical modeling shows that this is not a simple causal relationship.
But the growth in world population has masked what may be an even more important human-environmental interaction: Among developing countries, Latin American countries have the highest proportion of their population living in urban areas. But East and South Asia are likely to have the fastest growth rates in the next 30 years. Almost all of future world population growth will be in towns and cities.
Urbanization: An Environmental Force to Be Reckoned With
UN, World Urbanization Prospects: The Revision Past projections of urbanization have also often overestimated future rates of growth. Therefore, it is important to be careful in using urbanization data to draw definitive conclusions.
That was small wonder: Until a century ago, urban areas were some of the unhealthiest places for people to live. The increased density of populations in urban areas led to the rapid spread of infectious diseases. Consequently, death rates in urban areas historically were higher than in rural areas. The only way urban areas maintained their existence until recently was by the continual in-migration of rural people. The most striking examples of the urbanization of the world are the megacities of 10 million or more people.
In only four megacities existed; in there were And by the UN estimates that there will be Urban advantages include greater opportunities to receive education, health care, and services such as entertainment. The urban poor have less opportunity for education than the urban nonpoor, but still they have more chance than rural populations. Within urban areas, women who migrated from rural areas have more children than those born in urban areas.
So the difference between the fertility of urban migrants and rural women probably exaggerates the impact of urban migration on fertility. In sub-Saharan Africa, the urban fertility rates are about 1. It is also likely to concentrate some environmental effects geographically.
Environmental pollutions: The relation between urbanization and air pollution
Environmental Effects of Urbanization Urban populations interact with their environment. Urban people change their environment through their consumption of food, energy, water, and land.
And in turn, the polluted urban environment affects the health and quality of life of the urban population. People who live in urban areas have very different consumption patterns than residents in rural areas.
In China during the s, the urban populations consumed more than twice as much pork as the rural populations who were raising the pigs.
But even a decade later, urban populations had 60 percent more pork in their diets than rural populations.What causes water pollution in Urbanisation
The increasing consumption of meat is a sign of growing affluence in Beijing; in India where many urban residents are vegetarians, greater prosperity is seen in higher consumption of milk. Urban populations not only consume more food, but they also consume more durable goods. In the early s, Chinese households in urban areas were two times more likely to have a TV, eight times more likely to have a washing machine, and 25 times more likely to have a refrigerator than rural households.
Energy consumption for electricity, transportation, cooking, and heating is much higher in urban areas than in rural villages. For example, urban populations have many more cars than rural populations per capita.
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Almost all of the cars in the world in the s were in the United States. Today we have a car for every two people in the United States. If that became the norm, in there would be 5. Economies, therefore, often become more efficient as they develop because of advances in technology and changes in consumption behavior. And the increased consumption of energy is likely to have deleterious environmental effects.
Urban consumption of energy helps create heat islands that can change local weather patterns and weather downwind from the heat islands. The heat island phenomenon is created because cities radiate heat back into the atmosphere at a rate 15 percent to 30 percent less than rural areas.
Urbanization: An Environmental Force to be Reckoned With
The combination of the increased energy consumption and difference in albedo radiation means that cities are warmer than rural areas 0. Cloudiness and fog occur with greater frequency. Precipitation is 5 percent to 10 percent higher in cities; thunderstorms and hailstorms are much more frequent, but snow days in cities are less common. Urbanization also affects the broader regional environments. Regions downwind from large industrial complexes also see increases in the amount of precipitation, air pollution, and the number of days with thunderstorms.
Urban areas generally generate more rain, but they reduce the infiltration of water and lower the water tables. Then they need more foods, cloths and other materials to live. To supply their needs industries are growing up by which air is polluted. More people burn more fuels which creates co2 and other gases. By this urban people pollute air. More people need more vehicles for transportation. Vehicles pollute air rapidly. So air is polluted for the result of urbanization.
Industries are the main components of urbanization. From industries various types of gases are produced which causes acid rain. For urbanization forests and many other agricultural lands are reduced. It effects badly on air.
Urban people use refrigerators, air cooler, perfume etc. For urban people construction buildings are necessary. Air pollutes when dust particles are being mixed with air from construction works.
How water cycle balance the environmental quality: