Media, Technology, and Communication
The Relationship between Media Consumption and Health-Related Anxieties . between the dimensions of anxiety and types of mass media used by into five groups: outdoor, medical/educational/technological, housewife. In any event, the main relationships between political sciences and communication sciences have centred around the study of effects, at an initial stage. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Mass Communication & Journalism Communications and media are an area of science and technology that is under . field raises relevant questions about the relations between media and society.
Colonial magazines are published. As with colonial newspapers, Benjamin Franklin plays a central role getting them started. Unlike newspapers, magazines face more challenges in terms of postage rates and finding an audience.
Over the next thirty years, about one hundred magazines are published and go defunct. The number of magazines increases to about one hundred in circulation by Although they generate some revenue through advertising, they still face financial struggles. Most magazines serve a specific community or area and still consist of content that is mostly reprinted from other sources.
Specialized magazines catering to niche audiences begin to emerge.
- Mass media
For example, literary magazines feature the writing of people like Mark Twain and Ralph Waldo Emerson, and magazines focus on specific professions or topics such as farming, law, education, or science. The Saturday Evening Post is founded and becomes the longest-published magazine in the United States and the first general-interest magazine to be successfully marketed to a national audience.
Magazines pioneer the use of images in printed texts, reproducing high-quality illustrations and sketches, though not photographs. The Nation is published, which focuses on political opinion and caters toward a more educated and liberal readership. The Postal Act of is passed, which lowers the cost of postage for magazines.
This, along with improvements in rail transportation and mass-production printing, leads to a surge in the number of magazines and the number of subscribers. These changes attract more advertisers, which allows magazine publishers to drop the price per issue below what it actually costs to produce the magazine.
This attracts more readers, which attracts more advertisers and allows publishers to make up the loss between subscription and production rates with ad revenue. This is a peak time for magazine success. The early s sees a rise in investigative journalism that goes into much more depth than newspaper coverage.
Magazines play a key role in providing in-depth coverage of the World Wars and start to cover the cultural revolutions of the s when they run into new challenges. As television explodes as the new mass medium of choice, national magazines lose advertisers to the new audiovisual medium. Audiences now viewers instead of readers turn to nightly news programs to follow the civil rights movement, the sexual revolution, and the Vietnam War. Magazines adapt to changing times by devoting pages or entire publications to the covering of television and movies.
Magazines like People, launched inprovide news on a wide range of celebrities. Magazines also adapt by becoming more specialized, trying to appeal more to niche rather than general-interest audiences. While television forced magazines to adapt to an increasingly popular visual medium, radio and magazines coexisted relatively well. But the clash between print, audio, and visual media in the early s marks an interesting time in the history of mass media. The growth and spread of print as a mass medium took hundreds of years, which seems like an eternity when compared to the spread of audiovisual media.
The lack of and resistance to literacy made the printed medium spread less quickly than audio and visual media, which is not surprising from an evolutionary perspective. We did not evolve to read and write, which is why the process of teaching those things is so difficult and time consuming. In general, people enjoy watching and listening more than reading and writing. While we had to adapt our brains to decode written language and our arms, hands, and fingers to be able to produce written text, the turn to listening to the radio and watching and listening to television and movies was much more comfortable, familiar, and effortless.
Sound Mass Media The origins of sound-based mass media, radio in particular, can be traced primarily to the invention and spread of the telegraph. The telegraph Communication device invented in the s that transmitted Morse code across cables using electric pulses, making it the first nearly instant one-to-one communication technology. Messages were encoded to and decoded from dots and dashes on either end of the cable.
The first telegraph line ran between Washington, DC, and Baltimore, Maryland, inand the first transcontinental line started functioning in Bywe could send transatlantic telegraphs on a cable that ran across the ocean floor between Newfoundland, Canada, and Ireland. This first cable could only transmit about six words per minute, but it was the precursor to the global communications network that we now rely on every day. Something else was needed, though, to solve some ongoing communication problems.
Wireless Sound Transmission As the telegraph was taking off around the world, the physicist Heinrich Hertz began to theorize about electromagnetic energy, which is measurable physical energy in the atmosphere that moves at light speed. Although Hertz proved the existence of this energy all around us in the atmosphere, it was up to later inventors and thinkers to turn this potential into a mass medium.
Bittner, Mass Communication, 6th ed.
The Changing World of Media and Communication | OMICS International
Allyn and Bacon, By his work had enabled him to send a wireless signal about a mile and a half. With this, the wireless telegraph Communication device that used electromagnetic waves to transmit signals coded into pulses and was the precursor to radio. Marconi traveled to England, where he received a patent on his wireless telegraph machine in ByMarconi successfully sent a wireless message across the Atlantic Ocean.
Marconi became extremely successful, establishing companies in the United States and Europe and holding exclusive contracts with shipping companies and other large businesses. For example, the Marconi Telegraph Company had the communications contract with White Star Lines and was responsible for sending the SOS call that alerted other ships that the Titanic had struck an iceberg.
For years, Marconi essentially had a monopoly on the transmission of wireless messages. His success at adapting the already existing system of Morse code to wireless transmission was apparently satisfying enough that Marconi showed little interest in expanding the technology to transmit actual sounds like speech or music.
Although the wireless telegraph machine was the forerunner to radio broadcasting, its inventor did not envision the possibility of sending speech or music instead of Morse code. As is often the case with rapid technological advancement, numerous experiments and public demonstrations of radio technology—some more successful than others—were taking place around the same time in the late s and early s.
This rapid overlapping development has created debate over who first accomplished particular feats. Although working separately, Nathan B. Stubblefield, a melon farmer from Kentucky, and Reginald A. Fessenden, a professor from Pittsburgh, paved the way for radio The first mass medium to carry audio in the form of speech and music over a wireless signal.
Although these men were able to transmit weather updates and music, their equipment was much too large and complicated to attract a mass of people eager to own it.
Ambrose Fleming and Lee de Forest paved the way for much more controlled and manageable receivers. Lee de Forest, in particular, was interested in competing with Marconi by advancing wireless technology to be able to transmit speech and music. His improvements on the vacuum tube made the way for radio and television and ushered in a new age of modern electronics. The Birth of Broadcast Radio As the technology became more practical and stable, businesses and governments began to see the value in expanding these devices from primarily a point-to-point or person-to-person application to a one-to-many application.
He suggested that his new employer, the Radio Corporation of America RCAinvest in a household radio that contained all the necessary parts in one box. His pitch was made more appealing by his suggestion that such a device would make RCA a household name and attract national and international attention. With the technology now accessible, other key elements of radio as a mass medium like stations, content, financing, audience identification, advertising, and competition began to receive attention.
Timeline of Developments in RadioThomas H. First commercial radio station signs on the air as an experimental venture by Dr. First noncommercial radio station goes on the air at the University of Wisconsin—Madison. KDKA, the station often credited as signaling the beginning of the age of commercial broadcast radio, receives financial backing from Westinghouse a major company and gains much national attention for airing election returns following the presidential election.
The US Commerce Department licenses five radio stations. The first broadcasting network is created by New York station WEAF to give advertisers a discount and allow them to reach a larger audience at once. More than commercial and noncommercial radio stations are in operation and aboutradio receivers have been sold to US consumers. How Radio Adapted to Changing Technologies The s boom in radio created problems as radio waves became so crowded that nearly every radio had poor or sporadic reception.
Later, as television began to replace the radio as the central part of home entertainment, radio was forced to adapt to the changing marketplace.
For example, during the s, radio technology had advanced to the point that it could now be made portable. Since radio was being forced outside the home, radio capitalized on its portability by marketing pocket-sized transistor radios that could go places television could not. Radio also partnered with car manufacturers and soon became a standard feature in new automobiles, something that was very uncommon before the s. Radio also turned to the music industry to replace the content it had lost to television.
Even more recently, radio stations have turned to online streaming and podcasts so their content can still make its way to computers and portable devices such as smartphones. Just as radio caught on quickly, however, so did television and movies. In the end, the combination of audio and visual offered by these new media won out over radio. Visual Mass Media Humans like to both watch and listen to something at the same time. For at leastyears, humans have been entertained and informed by watching and listening to the things going on around them.
Cambridge,— But whether it was watching other humans or listening to the sounds of the forest, it had to happen in the moment, as there was no artificial way to convey images or sounds. We later know that performing arts became a popular visual medium in societies like ancient Greece, for example, where plays were an important but still relatively new and controversial form of entertainment. Although not a mass medium, ancient Greek theater as a visual medium was critiqued for its content much like movies and television have been in more modern times.
What Plato may not have realized was that the Greek playwrights were continuing a theme that started with the earliest producers of visual media. The drawings, paintings, sculptures, and plays produced until that point shared some human themes—namely, sex, food, drink, wealth, and violence.
Technology Leading to Visual Mass Media As with the birth of any mass medium, technological advances had to take place to move us from interpersonal or group engagement with visual media to mass engagement. In the s, the technologies needed to create photographs were put together in Europe, and photos were in regular circulation by the s.
By the late s, photographs could be mass-produced and included in existing print-based mass media like books, newspapers, and magazines. As soon as photographic technology began to circulate, people began to experiment with its limits to see what other potential it held. In the late s, experiments with serial photography were under way, which was the precursor to motion pictures.
In the s, Thomas Edison commercialized film, creating a motion picture company and demonstrating the new technology at expos and fairs and inviting guests to come watch short movies of people doing mundane things—for a fee, of course.
The Changing World of Media & Communication
At the same time, advances in sound recording and wireless transmission of sound were occurring, which was essential to bring together the audio and visual elements of modern movies and television.
Movies The first mass medium to combine audio and visual electronic communication. As was the case with radio, several people were simultaneously working to expand the technology that would soon be known as television. The earliest television was mechanical, meaning that it had to be turned or moved rather than relying on electronics.
Much of the recent explosion in the stock of human knowledge is linked with developments in media and communication. Communication has been around for a long time as a paradigm in development theory but as the times are changing, so are the communications for social change paradigms. In recent years, the world has witnessed the fastest transformations brought about by advancements in communications technology. People are increasingly mobile and urban.
Geographical, political and social landscapes are changing. All of these have impact on the way we communicate. These changes have posed valid questions to the existing paradigms in communication for social change. Where is the discipline headed? What are the prospects that have accrued from the changing times? What kind of social change can we expect from all this? Are we to experience a more just world anytime soon?
Communication is like lever which drives the modern world, across every sphere of life, and the media, is the fulcrum, that connects, opines and influences society, through its evolution. Media no longer involves astronomical costs which led to centralized one-to-many dissemination of messages and content.
Today, anyone with a computer and an internet connection has the potential of being a key media influencer and a mass media agenda-setter themselves. The past generation has seen a blizzard of mind-boggling developments in communication, ranging from the World Wide Web and broadband, to ubiquitous cell phones that are quickly becoming high-powered wireless computers in their own right.
Firms such as Google, Amazon, Craigslist, and Facebook have become iconic. The change has been rapid as digital technologies remove the barriers associated to the traditional media. The format, location, distance and time are no longer considerations, the transfer of content and information can be instantaneous and to anywhere in the world.
Immersion in the digital world is now or soon to be a requirement for successful participation in society. This is the age of communication, and the current information revolution is dramatically increasing the potential for sharing information across the globe. The information revolution we are witnessing today has been compared to the invention of moveable print in the fifteenth century or to the transition from an agrarian to an industrial society in the nineteenth century.
Economic liberalization has concentrated ownership of the global media in the hands of a few large companies, but the communication environment in developing countries is changing nevertheless. Technologies and media are becoming more appropriate for conditions in rural areas. Democratization, government deregulation policies and pluralism have encouraged the decentralization of information production away from central governments while horizontal, people-to-people processes are replacing vertical, traditional lines of communication.
Participatory approaches have paved the way for community-based ownership and use of various communication media, for example rural radio The field of Media and Communication is a relative young discipline; many of us have first-hand experience of its gestation and birth. The study of media and mass communication has evolved steadily since the s.
Changes in contemporary political systems, the cross-fertilization or conflict of different cultures, the development of social institutions and organizations, not to mention new information technologies, have influenced the development of the discipline significantly. The number of scholars in the field of Media and Communication Research has increased dramatically during the last decade, and some excellent research communities have been created.
But, there are aspects that arouse some critical reflections — most of which concern whether and to what extent the work in our field raises relevant questions about the relations between media and society. Today, the media industry has been punctuated by a very small number of very sharp and very important junctures.
Media and Communication have been facing stiff challenges due to digitization and, in particular, due to the internet, which can be seen as the most important platform for convergence developments and as a driver of numerous changes in the communication and media industries. In the world of multilevel governance with private and public actors media landscapes and media cultures are undergoing fundamental and far-reaching metamorphoses. Not to mention the ramifications of phenomena like ICT, media convergence and global media structures.
We are witnessing the erosion of a previous communicational paradigm and the emergence of a new one. Such an emergence has implications for the economy, for our daily lives and for the balance of power that the media provides to political, economic and cultural actors of our societies.
This communicational change might be witnessed in a series of events and transformation in practices and representations towards media and their role in society. Examples are diverse and can be found in more visible trends as sharp falls in the sale of newspapers, the growing proliferation of P2P distribution of audiovisual content, the increasing presence of advertising on the Internet, or in the less visible as the role of social networks on the daily routines of citizens and organizations, the sometimes competing and occasionally symbiotic relationship between journalist and citizens on the coverage of events twittering in twitter or other micro-blogging sites, the appropriations of Open Access, Open Source and Open Science practices by scientists and the decommodification of media production for online sharing.
What exactly do we mean by new media and how has it changed the media environment? How has this in turn impacted upon different parts of the globe given the reality that power is not distributed equally amongst all nations who are at different levels of development?Advantages and Disadvantages of Mass Media
The main question is the gap between north and south. The gap between the rich and poor still prevails as a result of disparities in access to resources, knowledge and technology, especially in rural areas. But, the divide is also reproduced within virtually every country of the world and often reflects other gaps — those between income groups, the sexes and ethnic groups.
Believing that it is possible to empirically argue that the changes witnessed in communication go beyond a simple reconfiguring of the mass communication model, by adding the Internet to a set of practices and representations already present, I would like to argue that as the communicational model of the industrial model of development was we are now witnessing the building of a new Mass Communication with communicational model taking place under the informational model of development in our societies.
So we should consider that Networked Communication is slowly, but steadily, replacing Mass Communication and its communicational paradigms in our societies. Such replacement, of Mass Communication by Networked Communication, occurs with different nuances in the different cultural backgrounds and different media systems around the world, [ 1 - 6 ] but at the same time keeping in common a set of features that give it the consistency of argument that we are witnessing a global change in models of communication.
In the rapidly changing global environment, there is a need for a conceptual frame that takes account of the wide range of theories and explanations for developments in media and communication, which also encompasses drivers like globalization, individualization and the growing importance of the market economy as a reference system.
We need to better understand how media and communication may be used, both as tools and as a way of articulating processes of development and social change, improving everyday lives and empowering people to influence their own lives and those of their fellow community members [ 7 ]. The communicational change results from the transformation of media consumption, that is, entertainment, communication and provision of news and information, but also knowledge creation in general, including the scientific dimension.
Because the education system is based on the communication of the produced knowledge and, in turn, the scientific system depends on knowledge production, a change in the communication paradigm is also felt in the scientific dimension - therefore influencing also all society. In this digital age it is easy to marginalize traditional media as radio, newspapers, journals and books, and fail to confront critical issues such as the lack of media freedom in many parts of the world, the rising global concentration of private media ownership, the absence of media legislation and the challenges facing public service media In a world where consumption is no longer entirely driven by media companies and begins to be shared by participants, through the availability of technology, this dimension of communicational change is also a change of cognitive character, that is, it also surfaces in tensions within the educational system, that is, through oppositions like: Global Mediation Instead of seeing the consequences of global mediation in purely dichotomic terms, as either homogenization or heterogenization, we start seeing both of them on different levels global, national, regional, urban, local and the struggles between and inside them.
We recognize that social relationships are increasingly mediated and individuals in different locations within and between nations and states are connected to each other through media and communications.
As Roger Silverstone [ 9 ] wrote: They have become the sine qua non of the quotidian. Hence, the increasing use of media and communications is one of the most striking features of our age and defines the ways we live. Globally, outside our homes, as Castells puts it, established hierarchical social and political structures have given way to networks Castells.
These networks and here is the major intersection with globalization theories are non-isomorphic with nation states and increasingly enable individuals to communicate across the borders from their homes. In this way, the private and the public are connected not only to each other but created new plural virtual private and public spaces we have never seen before. We understand that connectivity is part of global mediation.
Mediation is a concept that can be used as a starting point for any analysis of contemporary societies, in the same way as, for example, society or social interactions are used in political science or sociology.
The concept is required in order to acknowledge that the nature of societies and social relationships have fundamentally changed and become increasingly mediated through the use of media and communications. This change has broken traditional boundaries of national societies and given birth to new global connections, again characterized by their mediation.
However, inthe Master Settlement Agreement between the US and the tobacco industries prohibited the billboard advertising of cigarettes. In a Chicago-based study, Diana Hackbarth and her colleagues revealed how tobacco- and alcohol-based billboards were concentrated in poor neighbourhoods. In other urban centers, alcohol and tobacco billboards were much more concentrated in African-American neighborhoods than in white neighborhoods.
Mass media encompasses much more than just news, although it is sometimes misunderstood in this way. It can be used for various purposes: Entertainmenttraditionally through performances of actingmusicand TV shows along with light reading; since the late 20th century also through video and computer games. Public service announcements and emergency alerts that can be used as political device to communicate propaganda to the public.
Those who practice journalism are known as journalists. News -oriented journalism is sometimes described as the "first rough draft of history" attributed to Phil Grahambecause journalists often record important events, producing news articles on short deadlines. While under pressure to be first with their stories, news media organizations usually edit and proofread their reports prior to publication, adhering to each organization's standards of accuracy, quality and style.
Many news organizations claim proud traditions of holding government officials and institutions accountable to the public, while media critics have raised questions about holding the press itself accountable to the standards of professional journalism. Public relations Public relations is the art and science of managing communication between an organization and its key publics to build, manage and sustain its positive image. Corporations use marketing public relations to convey information about the products they manufacture or services they provide to potential customers to support their direct sales efforts.
Typically, they support sales in the short and long term, establishing and burnishing the corporation's branding for a strong, ongoing market. Corporations also use public relations as a vehicle to reach legislators and other politicians, seeking favorable tax, regulatory, and other treatment, and they may use public relations to portray themselves as enlightened employers, in support of human-resources recruiting programs.
Nonprofit organizationsincluding schools and universities, hospitals, and human and social service agencies, use public relations in support of awareness programs, fund-raising programs, staff recruiting, and to increase patronage of their services.
Politicians use public relations to attract votes and raise money, and when successful at the ballot box, to promote and defend their service in office, with an eye to the next election or, at career's end, to their legacy.
Publishing Publishing is the industry concerned with the production of literature or information — the activity of making information available for public view. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as books and newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internetthe scope of publishing has expanded to include websitesblogsand the like.
As a businesspublishing includes the development, marketingproductionand distribution of newspapers, magazines, books, literary worksmusical workssoftwareother works dealing with information.
Publication is also important as a legal concept ; 1 as the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy, and; 2 as the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation ; that is, the alleged libel must have been published. Software publishing A software publisher is a publishing company in the software industry between the developer and the distributor. In some companies, two or all three of these roles may be combined and indeed, may reside in a single person, especially in the case of shareware.
Software publishers often license software from developers with specific limitations, such as a time limit or geographical region. The terms of licensing vary enormously, and are typically secret. Developers may use publishers to reach larger or foreign markets, or to avoid focussing on marketing. Or publishers may use developers to create software to meet a market need that the publisher has identified. Internet Based Professions A YouTuber is anyone who has made their fame from creating and promoting videos on the public video-sharing site, YouTube.
Many YouTube celebrities have made a profession from their site through sponsorships, advertisements, product placement, and network support. History Early wooden printing press, depicted in The history of mass media can be traced back to the days when dramas were performed in various ancient cultures.
This was the first time when a form of media was "broadcast" to a wider audience. Movable clay type was invented in in China. However, due to the slow spread of literacy to the masses in China, and the relatively high cost of paper there, the earliest printed mass-medium was probably European popular prints from about Although these were produced in huge numbers, very few early examples survive, and even most known to be printed before about have not survived.
The term "mass media" was coined with the creation of print media, which is notable for being the first example of mass media, as we use the term today. This form of media started in Europe in the Middle Ages. Johannes Gutenberg 's invention of the printing press allowed the mass production of books to sweep the nation.
He printed the first book, a Latin Bible, on a printing press with movable type in The invention of the printing press gave rise to some of the first forms of mass communication, by enabling the publication of books and newspapers on a scale much larger than was previously possible.
Newspapers developed from aboutwith the first example in English in ;  but they took until the 19th century to reach a mass-audience directly. The first high-circulation newspapers arose in London in the early s, such as The Timesand were made possible by the invention of high-speed rotary steam printing presses, and railroads which allowed large-scale distribution over wide geographical areas.
The increase in circulation, however, led to a decline in feedback and interactivity from the readership, making newspapers a more one-way medium. In recent times, the Internet become the latest and most popular mass medium. Information has become readily available through websites, and easily accessible through search engines.
One can do many activities at the same time, such as playing games, listening to music, and social networking, irrespective of location. Whilst other forms of mass media are restricted in the type of information they can offer, the internet comprises a large percentage of the sum of human knowledge through such things as Google Books.
Modern day mass media includes the internet, mobile phones, blogs, podcasts and RSS feeds. Physical duplication technologies such as printingrecord pressing and film duplication allowed the duplication of books, newspapers and movies at low prices to huge audiences.
Radio and television allowed the electronic duplication of information for the first time. Mass media had the economics of linear replication: An example of Riel and Neil's theory. Vast fortunes were to be made in mass media. In a democratic society, the media can serve the electorate about issues regarding government and corporate entities see Media influence. Some consider the concentration of media ownership to be a threat to democracy. This sums up to an overall value of around 5, bil USD.
Influence and sociology This section is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. February Learn how and when to remove this template message Limited-effects theory, originally tested in the s and s, considers that because people usually choose what media to interact with based on what they already believe, media exerts a negligible influence.
The Role and Influence of Mass Media
Class-dominant theory argues that the media reflects and projects the view of a minority elite, which controls it. Culturalist theory, which was developed in the s and s, combines the other two theories and claims that people interact with media to create their own meanings out of the images and messages they receive.
This theory states that audience members play an active, rather than passive role in relation to mass media. The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
You may improve this articlediscuss the issue on the talk pageor create a new articleas appropriate. Whilst historically, there was more diversity in companies, they have recently merged to form an elite which have the power to shape the opinion and beliefs of people.