Judaism in the Time of Jesus
Their main distinguishing characteristic was a belief in an Oral Law that God gave to Moses at Sinai along with the Torah. The Torah, or Written Law, was akin to. These were the Pharisees, the Sadducees, the Essenes, the Zealots - and In spite of differences between them the groups were united by certain basic beliefs. Another group often mentioned in the New Testament in connection with the. Answer: The Gospels refer often to the Sadducees and Pharisees, as Jesus was in The Sadducees rejected a belief in the resurrection of the dead (Matthew.
Pharisees, Sadducees & Essenes
Constitution in the sense that it set down a series of laws that were open to interpretation. The Pharisees believed that God also gave Moses the knowledge of what these laws meant and how they should be applied.
This oral tradition was codified and written down roughly three centuries later in what is known as the Talmud. The Pharisees also maintained that an after-life existed and that God punished the wicked and rewarded the righteous in the world to come. They also believed in a messiah who would herald an era of world peace.
- The Sadducees
Pharisees were in a sense blue-collar Jews who adhered to the tenets developed after the destruction of the Temple ; that is, such things as individual prayer and assembly in synagogues. The Sadducees The Sadducees were elitists who wanted to maintain the priestly caste, but they were also liberal in their willingness to incorporate Hellenism into their lives, something the Pharisees opposed.
The Sadducees rejected the idea of the Oral Law and insisted on a literal interpretation of the Written Law ; consequently, they did not believe in an after life, since it is not mentioned in the Torah. The main focus ofSadducee life was rituals associated with the Temple. The Sadducees disappeared around 70 A. None of the writings of the Sadducees has survived, so the little we know about them comes from their Pharisaic opponents.
These two "parties" served in the Great Sanhedrina kind of Jewish Supreme Court made up of 71 members whose responsibility was to interpret civil and religious laws. The Sadducee concept of the mortality of the soul is reflected on by Uriel Acostawho mentions them in his writings. Role of the Sadducees[ edit ] Religious[ edit ] The religious responsibilities of the Sadducees included the maintenance of the Temple in Jerusalem.
Their high social status was reinforced by their priestly responsibilities, as mandated in the Torah.
Who Were the Sadducees?
The priests were responsible for performing sacrifices at the Temple, the primary method of worship in ancient Israel. This included presiding over sacrifices during the three festivals of pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Their religious beliefs and social status were mutually reinforcing, as the priesthood often represented the highest class in Judean society.
However, Sadducees and the priests were not completely synonymous. Cohen points out that "not all priests, high priests, and aristocrats were Sadducees; many were Pharisees, and many were not members of any group at all. Administered the state domestically Represented the state internationally Participated in the Sanhedrinand often encountered the Pharisees there. These also came in the form of international tribute from Jews in the Diaspora. Equipped and led the army Regulated relations with the Romans Mediated domestic grievances.
Rather, they saw the written Torah as the sole source of divine authority. According to Josephus, the Sadducees believed that: There is no fate.
God does not commit evil. Man has free will; "man has the free choice of good or evil". The soul is not immortal; there is no afterlife.
There are no rewards or penalties after death. The Sadducees did not believe in resurrection of the deadbut believed in the traditional Jewish concept of Sheol for those who had died. According to the Christian Acts of the Apostles: The Sadducees did not believe in resurrection, whereas the Pharisees did. In Acts, Paul chose this point of division to gain the protection of the Pharisees.
Sirach is a product of the Jewish community in Alexandria dated to the first third of second century BCE  There are no extant ancient texts of Hebrew origin with medicine as the primary subject.
According to Jewish law, daughters inherit when there are no sons; otherwise, the sons inherit.
Ancient Jewish History: Pharisees, Sadducees & Essenes
The Pharisees posited that if a deceased son left only one daughter, then she shares the inheritance with the sons of her grandfather. The Sadducees suggested that it is impossible for the granddaughter to have a more favorable relationship to her grandfather than his own daughter does, and thus rejected this ruling. The Sadducees demanded that the master pay for damages caused by his slave.
The Pharisees imposed no such obligation, as the slave may intentionally cause damage in order to see the liability for it brought on his master.
The Sadducees argued that false witnesses should be executed only if the death penalty has already been carried out on the falsely accused. Josephusin Antiquities, contextualizes the Sadducees as opposed to the Pharisees and the Essenes. The Sadducees are also notably distinguishable from the growing Jesus movement, which later evolved into Christianity.
These groups differed in their beliefs, social statuses, and sacred texts. Though the Sadducees produced no primary works themselves, their attributes can be derived from other contemporaneous texts, namely, the New Testamentthe Dead Sea Scrollsand later, the Mishnah and Talmud.