Mushroom Life Cycle
Biflagellate zoospores, diploid mycelium, with meiosis that occurs along 2 µm. Hypha of Collybia velutipes with the typical clamp connection •Two HAPLOID NUCLEI in an apical dikaryotic hyphal compartment (often within a basidiocarp) FUSE to .. part of the stem with the high risk of contamination of. (Archived at MycoWeb); "Mycomorphology Part 2: Basidiocarp Keeps its Balance " by Peter Werner, Mycena News, March The ascocarp wall sometimes is composed of a loose mass of hyphae (e.g., . but the connection between the two fungi could not unambiguously be verified. will lead to contamination of the plates with spores from opportunistic fungi such as . The isolates readily lose the ability to form basidiocarps in pure culture when.
Iron bioaccumulation in the mycelium has increased with the increase of iron concentration in the culture medium Figure 2.
The close relationship between the iron bioaccumulation by the mycelium and the iron concentration in the culture medium are in accordance to the results obtained in FFD Table 1 where only the iron concentration in the culture medium affected bioaccumulation of this metal in the mycelium. Discussion Glucose was the best carbon source for the production of mycelial biomass.
The optimal concentration of glucose obtained in this study for the biomass production was This value is within the cited range in the literature for the mycelial production by Pleurotus genus, which is 8. The best obtained results with glucose rather than carboxymethyl cellulose can be related to the cellular metabolic facility of this molecule whereas carboxymethyl cellulose needs the action of a group of enzymes to be hydrolyzed.
Although glucose metabolization is apparently easier, for some microorganisms, metabolic repression can occur by the glucose presence Ronne, However, the results found in our study indicate that it did not occur for P.
This positive effect of the yeast extract in the basidiomycete production is also reported for Grifola frondosa and Auricularia polytricha Lee et al. The appropriateness of this nitrogen source for the production of mycelial biomass in basidiomycetes, especially P. Moreover, hydrolyzed casein, besides being a nitrogen source of animal origin, undergoes denaturation during sterilization with loss of solubility and smaller accessibility to the enzymatic action of the fungus.
The highest production of mycelial biomass in our study was obtained in the culture medium with carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of 3. This result is closer to the one reported by Fasidi and Oiorunmaiye that determined the optimal carbon-to-nitrogen ratio as 4.
This indicates that P. The increase of iron concentration in the culture medium also causes the induction of manoprotein synthesis Protchenko et al. These proteins keep at the cell membrane the iron from siderophores, peptic molecules specialized in iron transport Haas, Therefore, besides the oxidative stress, metabolism is directed towards the synthesis of iron chelating compounds as a defense strategy of the fungus and not to the cell growth.
The increase of iron concentration in the culture medium caused the increase of iron bioaccumulation in P. According to Kosmanfungi depend on iron oxidation to increase bioavailability as well as to reduce the iron cytotoxicity to keep intracellular homeostasis.
The versatility and redundancy that basidiomycetes have to bioaccumulate iron are reported Haas, It is likely that the fungus has used this iron absorption system as a defense mechanism to free radicals produced in the oxidative processes mediated by iron.
For instance ferric uptake regulation protein acts as a siderophore synthesis repressor and on the expression of iron superoxide dismutase enzyme Kosman, In our experiment, the mycelium bioaccumulated up to 20 times the iron concentration available in the culture medium. Basidiomycete mycelium can bioaccumulate copper and zinc at, and times the medium basal content for Agaricus blazei, respectively Rabinovich et al.
Iron bioaccumulation in mycelium of Pleurotus ostreatus
Several factors affect the bioaccumulation capacity of basidiomycetes like strain, cultivation method, fungus development phase, oxidative state of the mineral, among others Baldrian, Mushrooms can bioaccumulate contaminants from natural substrate and it has been a growing concern in mushroom production.
Therefore, contamination of mushrooms with heavy metals represent a low risk to the public health, in general, but could be a serious problem for those with weakened and immunosuppressed health.
The production of iron enriched mycelial biomass could be an opportunity to use it as a functional food because of its health benefits Lee et al. The mycelium of P. Thus, iron bioaccumulated mycelium could be an alternative food concentrated with iron of a non-animal source.
Basidiocarp - Wikipedia
Future experiments could compare mycelium and basidiocarp bioaccumulation capacity and bioavaibility in vitro and in vivo; include other other functional basidiomycetes; evaluate other biological activities of enriched mycelium and basidiocarp as an alternative source of iron.
During basidiosporogenesis, a process that takes place inside the basidiocarp peridioles, a conspicuous reserve of fatty acids is present throughout development. While several previous studies have described basidiosporogenesis inside peridioles, very little is known about gene expression changes that may occur during this part of the fungal life cycle.
The objective of this work was to analyze gene transcription during peridiole and basidiospore development, while focusing specifically on cell cycle progression and lipid metabolism.
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We identified three clusters among the regulated genes which showed differential expression between the peridiole developmental stages and the basidiospores. During peridiole development, transcripts for proteins involved in cellular processes, signaling, and information storage were detected, notably those for coding transcription factors, DNA polymerase subunits, DNA repair proteins, and genes involved in chromatin structure.
Conclusion Our results show that basidiocarp formation in P.
We identified waves of transcripts with coordinated regulation and identified transcription factors which may play a role in this regulation.
This is the first work to describe gene expression patterns during basidiocarp formation in an ectomycorrhizal gasteromycete fungus and sheds light on genes that may play important roles in the developmental process. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi: Phylogeographic studies have shown that P.
Recent sequencing of the P.
Fungi classified in the phylum Basidiomycota form reproductive structures or fruiting bodies called basidiocarps mushrooms.