Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age
Hellenism introduced and spread the Greek language, art, culture, political ideas, and The cultural and economic links strengthened through the expansion of. For thousands of years the art of the ancient Greeks has been held up as the The legacy of cultures pre-dating the Greeks can be seen in early statues. . The building's connection to ancient Greece extended beyond its columns and Greek . Hellenistic art is the art of the Hellenistic period generally taken to begin with the death of . This was a mark of civilization that was extremely prominent in Greek culture . Johann Joachim Winckelmann, who first articulated the difference between Greek, Greco-Roman and Roman art, drew inspiration from the Laocoön.
This artistic touch to homes at Olynthus introduces another element of civilized living to this Hellenistic society. Starting from a simple fortress located on the Acropolisthe various Attalid kings set up a colossal architectural complex.
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The buildings are fanned out around the Acropolis to take into account the nature of the terrain. The agoralocated to the south on the lowest terrace, is bordered by galleries with colonnades columns or stoai. It is the beginning of a street which crosses the entire Acropolis: A colossal theatre, able to contain nearly 10, spectators, has benches embedded in the flanks of the hill.
Cessavit deinde ars "then art disappeared". A period of stagnation followed, with a brief revival after the th — BCbut with nothing to the standard of the times preceding it. During this period sculpture became more naturalistic, and also expressive; there is an interest in depicting extremes of emotion. On top of anatomical realism, the Hellenistic artist seeks to represent the character of his subject, including themes such as suffering, sleep or old age. Genre subjects of common people, women, children, animals and domestic scenes became acceptable subjects for sculpture, which was commissioned by wealthy families for the adornment of their homes and gardens; the Boy with Thorn is an example.
The Barberini Faun2nd-century BC Hellenistic or 2nd-century AD Roman copy of an earlier bronze Realistic portraits of men and women of all ages were produced, and sculptors no longer felt obliged to depict people as ideals of beauty or physical perfection. The drunk woman at Munich portrays without reservation an old woman, thin, haggard, clutching against herself her jar of wine.
One such is the Barberini Faun of Munichwhich represents a sleeping satyr with relaxed posture and anxious face, perhaps the prey of nightmares. This made sculpture, like pottery, an industry, with the consequent standardization and some lowering of quality.
For these reasons many more Hellenistic statues have survived than is the case with the Classical period. Second classicism[ edit ] Hellenistic sculpture repeats the innovations of the so-called "second classicism": Their style is often called " baroque ", with extravagantly contorted body poses, and intense expressions in the faces. Pergamon did not distinguish itself with its architecture alone: The Barberini Faun is one example. The Olympians triumph in it, each on his side, over Giants — most of which are transformed into savage beasts: Their mother Gaia comes to their aid, but can do nothing and must watch them twist in pain under the blows of the gods.
After holding out for one year under siege by Demetrius Poliorcetes — BCEthe Rhodians built the Colossus of Rhodes to commemorate their victory. Progress in bronze casting made it possible for the Greeks to create large works. Discovered in Rome in and seen immediately by Michelangelo beginning its huge influence on Renaissance and Baroque art.
The group is one of very few non-architectural ancient sculptures that can be identified with those mentioned by ancient writers.
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing based many of the ideas in his 'Laocoon' on Winckelmann's views on harmony and expression in the visual arts. Neo-Attic[ edit ] From the 2nd century the Neo-Attic or Neo-Classical style is seen by different scholars as either a reaction to baroque excesses, returning to a version of Classical style, or as a continuation of the traditional style for cult statues. Aphrodite and Eros fighting off the advances of Pan.
Marble, Hellenistic artwork from the late 2nd century BC. Paintings and mosaics[ edit ] Paintings and mosaics were important mediums in art, but no examples of paintings on panels have survived the fall to the Romans.
It is possible to get some idea of what they were like from related media, and what seem to be copies of or loose derivations from paintings in a wider range of materials. The inclusion of Hellenistic backgrounds can also be seen in works throughout Pompeii, Cyrene, Alexandria. Moreover, specifically in Southern Russia, floral features and branches can be found on walls and ceilings strewn in a disordered yet conventional manner, mirroring a late Greek style. Roman fresco painting known as "Cubiculum" bedroom from the Villa of P.
Fannius Synistor at Boscoreale50—40 B.Ancient Greece: Late Classical & Hellenistic
Metropolitan Museum of Art Hellenistic terracotta funerary wall painting, 3rd century BC Wall paintings began appearing more prominently in the Pompeian period.
These wall paintings were not just displayed in places of worship or in tombs. The most impressive, in terms of showing what high-quality Greek painting was like, are those at the Macedonian royal tombs at Vergina.
Though Greek painters are given tribute to bringing fundamental ways of representation to the Western World through their art. The most famously known stone paintings are found on the Macedonian Tomb at Agios Athanasios.
Hellenistic art - Wikipedia
In addition, some of the paintings in Villa Boscoreale clearly echo lost Hellenistic, Macedonian royal paintings. The excavations of this site led by Dr. Arvanitopoulos may be connected to various Greek painters in the 3rd and 4th centuries and depict scenes that elude to the reign of Alexander the Great.
Certain mosaicshowever, provide a pretty good idea of the "grand painting" of the period: King Philip's year-old son, Alexander, commanded the Macedonian cavalry, which found a gap and attacked the enemy phalanx from behind. Philip expanded Macedonian influence by diplomacy and by waging war.
Macedonian garrisons are troops left behind in certain areas, like Thebes, and Corinth, where there was a strong possibility of a rebellion. Philip's plan of conquest was cut short when, in BC, at his daughter's wedding, he was assassinated by one of his own body guards. Many people believe the assassin did not act alone, and that Olympias, Philip's fourth wife, was behind the plot to murder the king.
The crown of Macedonia passed to Alexander, Philip's son by Olympias. Alexander was only twenty years old when he became king, but had fought at Chaeronea two years before, leading the left wing of his father's cavalry.
Prince Alexander gains valuable military experience, as he leads his father's cavalry attack on the left flank at Chaeronea. Macedonia was ruled by an aristocracy who could afford the horses necessary to form a cavalry. Thebes resisted as Alexander's army advanced to the city. Alexander made an example of Thebes by totally destroying the city accept for the temples and the home of Pindar, one of his favorite poets. After destroying Thebes, Alexander moved on to Corinth, where he established himself as the new leader of the Corinthian League.
Alexander pardoned those city-states that had rebelled against him. Like his father, Alexander wanted to conquer the Persian Empire with the help of the Greeks. While in Corinth, Alexander sought out his favorite philosopher, Diogenes. Diogenes lived in the streets of Corinth in a barrel. When Alexander found the old man, he asked Diogenes if there was anything he could do for him. Diogenes replied, "Yes, you can stand a bit to the side, you are blocking my sunlight.
His first stop was the ruins of the City of Troy. The Iliad and Odyssey were Alexander's favorite books, and it was said that he always carried a copy of them wherever he went. It was at Troy that Alexander pulled the shield of Achilles from off the wall of a small museum amid the ruins. He would use the year old shield in all of his battles. Alexander learned to appreciate the Iliad and nature from his teacher Aristotle, a Macedonian who studied in Athens at Plato's Academy.
Darius was not overly concerned about the young Macedonian king, and was not present at this battle. Though he was almost killed, Alexander rallied his army and defeated the Persians.
Darius blamed the victory on his general, he would be sure to be with his army at the next battle. Alexander could not afford to go deep into the Persian Empire with enemies at his back.
Alexander could no resist this challenge. The knot was tied so the ends could not be found. Crying out, "It doesn't matter how it's done!
Darius, on the other hand, led from behind, on his chariot, surrounded by body guards. Although this may seem cowardly compared to Alexander, it was the safe thing to do. The king, being at the battle, gave the Persians courage, but he was safe from harm. Although the Persian's out-numbered Alexander's army, the battle location was between the sea and a mountain range, and the Great King could not out-flank Alexander's smaller army.
Darius fled the scene, leaving his mother, wife, and two daughters behind. Alexander captured the royal family, and treated them with kindness and respect. Daruis' mother became one of Alexander's most trusted advisorsand was at his bed-side when he died in Babylon.
Alexander built two moles, or land bridges, in an attempt to connect Tyre to the mainland. The first was unsuccessful, but the second featured two large siege towers the same height as the Tyrian walls. Every level of the tower has a lithobolos, or rock thrower, used to smash walls. Tyre was important to King Darius, because it was the navy base for his fleet of triremes. Alexander needed to control this fleet if he wished to go further into the Persian Empire. Alexander asked the Tyrians to hand over their fleet to him, but they refused.
Tyre was on an island about a quarter mile off the shore and had massive defensive walls. The Assyrians and Babylonians had previously attempted a siege of Tyre and had failed. Alexander built two land bridges in an attempt to connect Tyre to the mainland.
Next, he attacked the Persian fleet with ships of his own.
Art and Architecture [senshido.info]
It took seven months, but Alexander finally took Tyre. In BC, Alexander and his army entered Egypt. Alexander, with a few of his friends, travelled through the Egyptian desert to the Oasis of Siwa.
Alexander was always closer to his mother. Alexander's mother, named Olympias, was from the Kingdom of Epirus. When Alexander returned from the desert, he made plans for a new port city in Egypt which he called Alexandria, after himself. Alexander left Egypt behind and headed into the heart of the Persian Empire, determined to defeat Darius again.
In the same year that Alexander left Egypt, he moved deep into the Persian Empire; and at a place called Gaugamela camel's back a large battle took place in BC. King Darius was taking no chances at this battle. Darius assembled an army twice as large as Alexander's.
5e. Art and Architecture
Darius brought war elephants to the battlefield, along with scythed chariots. Elephants are used in war like tanks, they trample everything in their path, this was also the first time Greeks had seen these beasts, and Alexander's army was in awe of the elephants. The scythed chariots could cut into and break up the phalanx.
However, both of these elements proved disappointing. The elephants fell asleep during the battle, and were captured by Alexander.
Alexander's men simply moved to the side and let the scythed chariots pass through the lines.
Alexander won the Battle of Gaugamela, and Darius, for the second time fled the battlefield. Alexander's forces in red spread out, forcing Darius' army to move in an attempt to out-flank Alexander, this created a gap in Darius' line where Alexander, leading the Companion Cavalry, shoots through the gap and directly at Darius, who is behind his lines.