University of Technology for her faith in my abilities and help during my In Study II, a participatory ergonomics approach was used to identify the .. Figure 6: The comparative relationship between oxygen consumption and work load. According to International Ergonomics Association, ergonomics is “the scientific discipline Coupling work with conviction and faith. . According to Gable and Haidt , positive psychology is the study of the conditions and processes that. Living Out the Chahta Spirit Through Faith, Family and Culture. Ergonomics Overview Ergonomics is the study of the relationship between people, their.
This approach stresses the connection between thinking about happiness and doing what leads to it. One of the representatives of this approach is Seligman. In his book [ 46 ], Flourish: Generally speaking, human beings ought to have a certain amount of comfort which can either be big or small. This amount can last for long time or for a short time. Ergonomics from its emergence advocated that it aims to achieve various goals including human comfort. Seeing various definitions especially the ones of the s and s, comfort is one of these aims.
The following are examples: Ergonomics is an applied area of psychology and engineering which concerns itself with the design of the physical conditions, machines, and other equipment in relation to human capabilities, learning capacities, efficiency, and comfort [ 47 ].
Ergonomics is a branch of psychology concerned with the design of environments and equipment that promote optimum use of human capabilities and optimum efficiency and comfort [ 48 ]. Ergonomics is the application of information about human characteristics, capacities, and limitations to the design of machines, machine-systems, and environments so that people can live and work safely, comfortably, and effectively. The term also designates the profession that deals with such problems [ 49 ].
Ergonomics studies the role of humans in complex systems, the design of equipment and facilities for human use, and the development of environments for comfort and safety [ 50 ]. The positive ergonomics components: The major components of positive ergonomics are: Researchers [ 51 — 54 ], believe that emotions can be classified on basis of their content, into positive such as joy, contentment, interest and love, and negative emotions such as fear, anger, disgust, and shame.
Each emotion either positive or negative is associated with a tendency towards a specific type of action that enhances either success or survival in the specific context. Positive emotions work like a reward that strengthen behavior, whereas negative emotions work like a punishment to stop a behavior from occurring [ 5556 ].
The reader may come across other related concepts such as mood and affect.
Using ergonomics to eliminate incidents and accidents - IMEC Technologies
In order not to confuse these concepts with emotion, each is defined. First, all these concepts refer to feeling human beings experience. Second, each refers to a particular type of feeling as follows: Emotions are intense feelings that generally have well-defined subject human beings or objects. Moods are feelings that are less intense as emotions. Besides, they often have no well-defined subject.
Affects are feelings that are either intense emotion or moderate mood feelings. Emotional ergonomics pays attention to the emotional aspects of the man-machine system. Man, when in the man-machine system, cannot free himself from his emotions even if they tried to do so. Those who consider that a human being could leave aside his emotions while working do not know the truth about man. A healthy man-machine system is one where workers are allowed to express their emotions [ 57 ].
Expressing positive emotions will help man-machine system to obtain favorable outcomes; on the other hand, negative emotions will prevent man-machine system from obtaining positive results [ 58 ]. Associated with emotional ergonomics, a new concept used in ergonomics, which is hedonomics.
According to Hancock et al. Since the concept is new, Helander [ 59 ] believes that the problem of ergonomists is now to conceptualize hedonomics, to propose theories that can be used for design, and to build appropriate measurement tools.
It is to note that other terms have been given for hedonomics. At the early years of ergonomics, ergonomists were more concerned about physical and cognitive aspects of the system.
But, after more than 60 years of ergonomic research, and in response to well spread tendency of positiveness in human sciences, they are very enthusiastic to shed light on the affective side of the man-machine system with the aim of making it pleasurable. Gendron and Feldman-Barrett [ 63 ] think that contemporary psychological research on emotions has gone through three clearly identified stages. The golden stage before behaviorism: In this stage, research on emotions flourished at the hands of researchers like Darwin [ 36 ], James [ 37 ], Spencer [ 64 ], and Cannon [ 65 ].
The dark stage behaviorism time: In this stage, researchers stopped research in the emotion subject. In almost 40 years, nothing worthwhile was published. In fact, it was the dominance of the behavioral approach that marginalized the topic of emotions, as it is of little significance [ 6667 ]. The renaissance stage from s: In this stage, interest returned again to the topic of emotions which was behind the expansion of conceptual and empirical research, providing a number of influential ideas and theories.
One of the influential ideas is what Zajonc [ 68 ] had mentioned that emotions function independently of cognition and sometimes it dominates it. Some of the significant theories are: Zajonc theory of emotion [ 69 ], the theory of the evolutionary adaptive value of emotions [ 70 ], the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions [ 71 ], and three levels of product emotion theory [ 72 ].
It is a design that takes into consideration emotions of users while designing or redesigning goods and products. It maximizes the good positive emotions and minimizes the bad negative one. In some cases, other names hedonic design, affective design, affective human factors design, human-centered design, empathetic design are used for emotional design. Researchers have found that products designed according to emotional design induce among consumers positive feelings which in turn increase pleasure and satisfaction.
A good example of emotional design is any product or features of a product you loved you love in your life. There are a lot of books written about the design, but the books about emotional design are quite new.
They are the result of emotion renaissance era mentioned above. Some of these worthy emotional design books are: Anderson [ 73 ]. Designing for Emotion by Walter [ 22 ]. Designing Emotions by Desmet [ 74 ]. Design and Emotion by McDonagh et al.
Design for Emotion, by van Gorp and Adams [ 76 ]. For Norman [ 77 ], emotional design has three levels as follows: First level, the visceral level Definition: The visceral level is a level of design in which appearance is very important. It is the initial and immediate reaction to any design that is generally coming from strong emotions and not from logic or reason. These immediate reactions whether in the form of likes or dislikes are often learned.
When babies are born, they do not have likes or dislikes, but by time, they learn to like some things food, drink, cloths, etc…and to dislike other things.
Since these likes and dislikes have been learned, they can be changed by learning as well. In the area of marketing, companies these days rely heavily on this type of design to sell the outputs of goods and services provided. Sometimes, when an enterprise feels that a particular commodity is experiencing a recession, they quickly resort to improve the external appearance. Some of which are aesthetic, functional, and ergonomic values [ 78 ].
In addition, it has been found that visceral design helps create commercial success [ 79 ]. They found that subjects preBfer the original, piano black treatment of the BlackBerry Pearl over the visually treated versions of the smartphone. It requires the knowledge, skills and abilities of designer.
When designers design a particular item, it can be liked or disliked by consumers. If positive feedback is to be given to designer, the product physical features look, sound, feel, taste, and smell should be in line with consumer characteristics. When these criteria are taken into account, no doubt both designer and consumer will be pleased.
New Paradigms in Ergonomics: The Positive Ergonomics
But on the other hand, if negative feedback is given, both designer and consumer are frustrated. Why this kind of stressing situation happens? Second level, the behavioral level Definition: The behavioral level is a level of design in which performance not appearance which matters.
In the previous visceral design, appearance was essential. Here performance of the product is the most important criteria for choosing that product. If a pen is not writing, it is not a good product. Similarly, if a shaver cannot shave smoothly, it is not a good product.
Products can have many other uses, but what is important, is the use for which the product was basically designed. As an example is the chair.
Chairs are normally designed for sitting. But, in some cases, they are used to reach the top of a tall shelf. In some other cases, they are used as a hanger to hang the coat in office work, or as a lock to keep the door of a room open, or as a weapon in cases of fight. The design of cup holders in cars is a good example of behavioral design. May be you know that the German car company BMW refused to incorporate it in its cars under the pretext that car are for driving, not for drinking. However, when BMW car sales went down, they had around to incorporate it.
Behavioral design can be measured using well-known methods such as observation, questionnaires, interviews, focus groups, etc. To achieve this goal, designers are advised to carry out field observation and to interview focus groups individuals, so that needs are clearly seen. Third level, the reflective level Definition: The reflective level is a level of design in which emotions not performance appearance which matter.
It can be called emotional design. In this type of design, emotions play a great role. It is based on the idea that emotions function independently of cognition. It is the design that makes the customer to build a positive association with the product at hand.
This positive association boosts the sales level. In marketing and advertising sciences, reflective design is becoming very essential. It has been found that an effective reflective design enhances the emotional connection consumers have with brands [ 81 ], ad likeability [ 82 ], and recall [ 83 ].
Similar to behavioral design, reflective design can be measured using well-known methods such as observation, questionnaires, interviews, focus groups, etc. Designers who want to produce design at this level should not base their designs on their emotions themselves.
Wherever you go, you are plagued with so many products with very different designs. These designs can be good or bad designs. It depends on the user judgments. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article doi: Globally, HCFs employ over 59 million workers and offer variety of services to clients and patients, and are classified as hazardous and high risk work place [ 23 ].
Healthcare facilities like other high risk work places are characterized by a high level of exposure to hazardous agents, which significantly endangers the health and life of workers HCWs. Occupational safety is the control of hazards in the work place to achieve an acceptable level of risk, while workplace safety generally refers to the process of protecting the health and safety of staff while on the job, irrespective of vocation [ 67 ].
Occupational health and safety is an important issue because of high rates of associated morbidity and mortality of exposed workers. An estimatedpeople die from occupational illnesses, while aboutnew cases of occupational diseases are diagnosed every year [ 89 ].
This affects workers in various occupations as a result of their exposure to different types and varying degrees of hazards in the workplace. However, studies indicate that workers in the farming, general contracting, steel, automobile, truck driving and nursing sectors have the highest risk of exposure to high risk occupational hazards [ 9 ].
In discharging their statutory duties, HCWs may be exposed to hazards which significantly impair their health and quality of life, with multiplier effect on their immediate and extended family members. Thus, HCWs need protection from workplace hazards as much as the staff in other high risk workplaces such as mining or construction works. The hazards in HCFs are classified by WHO into physical, biological, mechanical, ergonomic, chemical and psycho-social.
Previous studies have shown that occupational injuries and illnesses among HCWs ranked among the highest of any industry though could be reduced or eliminated. Ergonomics is the study of work.
This process may include modifying tasks, the work environment and equipment to meet the specific needs of an employee to alleviate physical stress on the body and eliminate potentially disabling work-related musculoskeletal disorders MSDs. As some may recall, ergonomics was a very hot topic for OSHA in the s. OSHA began an ergonomics rule-making process in and started drafting an ergonomics standard inwhich eventually culminated in the issuance of an Ergonomics Program Standard on Nov.
The standard became effective on Jan. The new rule generally contained requirements for most non-construction employers to identify and abate MSDs. On March 20,President George W. Bush —shortly after taking office — signed Senate Joint Resolution 6, which repealed the new standard. Since the repeal, OSHA has addressed ergonomics in a number of ways, including issuing guidelines for various industries. OSHA guidelines contain recommendations, best practices and lessons learned for specific industries.
In other words, guidelines are advisory and do not create new employer obligations. These guidelines include such industries as retail grocery stores, shipyards, nursing homes, foundries, beverage distribution, poultry processing and meatpacking plants. They are available at https: More recent data in from the Bureau of Labor Statistics BLS shows that ergonomics remains a costly issue for businesses.
BLS data shows that these types of incidents and accidents account for one-third of days-away-from-work cases.