Vasco da Gama | Biography, Achievements, & Facts | senshido.info
Kids learn about the biography and life of explorer Vasco da Gama. He led the first expedition that traveled from Europe to India by sailing around Africa. However, many were skeptical and thought that the Indian Ocean did not connect with Vasco da Gama left on his first voyage from Lisbon, Portugal on July 8, On May 20, , Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama became the first European to reach India by sailing around Africa, a major expedition Da Gama was the first European to reach the lucrative trade centers Da Gama and his fleet used well-traveled routes to navigate down . Meet a Paleontologist. It has been over years since Vasco da Gama started his journey to India. Here are some facts on the Portuguese navigator and his journey. His father was the Governor of Sines, Portugal. Teixeira de Aragao Originally Vasco's father, Estevao, was supposed to lead the exploration fleet. Eventually.
After calling briefly at Mozambique, the Portuguese expedition sailed to Kilwa, in what is now Tanzania. Coasting southern Arabiada Gama then called at Goa later the focus of Portuguese power in India before proceeding to Cannanore, a port in southwestern India to the north of Calicut, where he lay in wait for Arab shipping. After several days an Arab ship arrived with merchandise and between and passengers, including women and children.
After seizing the cargo, da Gama is said to have shut up the passengers aboard the captured ship and set it afire, killing all on board. As a consequence, da Gama has been vilified, and Portuguese trading methods have been associated with terror.
However, the episode is related only by late and unreliable sources and may be legendary or at least exaggerated. After da Gama formed an alliance with the ruler of Cannanore, an enemy of the Zamorin, the fleet sailed to Calicut, with the aim of wrecking its trade and punishing the Zamorin for the favour he had shown to Muslim traders.
Da Gama bombarded the port and seized and massacred 38 hostages. The Portuguese then sailed south to the port of Cochin, with whose ruler an enemy of the Zamorin they formed an alliance. After an invitation to da Gama from the Zamorin had proved to be an attempt to entrap him, the Portuguese had a brief fight with Arab ships off Calicut but put them to full flight. On February 20,the fleet left Cannanore for Mozambique on the first stage of their return voyage, reaching the Tagus on October The third voyage Obscurity surrounds the reception of da Gama on his return by King Manuel.
Da Gama seemingly felt himself inadequately recompensed for his pains. He was later granted additional privileges and revenues, and his wife bore him six sons. Until he continued to advise the King on Indian matters, and he was created count of Vidigueira in There the expedition first noted evidence of Indian traders.
Da Gama and his crew contracted the services of a pilot who used his knowledge of the monsoon winds to guide the expedition the rest of the way to Calicutlocated on the southwest coast of India.
Sources differ over the identity of the pilot, calling him variously a Christian, a Muslim, and a Gujarati. One traditional story describes the pilot as the famous Arab navigator Ibn Majidbut other contemporaneous accounts place Majid elsewhere, and he could not have been near the vicinity at the time. Vasco da Gama left Malindi for India on 24 April Calicut, India Vasco da Gama landing at Calicut A steel engraving from the s, with modern hand coloring.
It shows the meeting of Vasco da Gama with Zamorin. The King of Calicut, the Samudiri Zamorinwho was at that time staying in his second capital at Ponnanireturned to Calicut on hearing the news of the foreign fleets's arrival.
The navigator was received with traditional hospitality, including a grand procession of at least 3, armed Nairsbut an interview with the Zamorin failed to produce any concrete results. When local authorities asked da Gama's fleet, "What brought you hither? While Zamorin's officials wondered at why there was no gold or silver, the Muslim merchants who considered da Gama their rival suggested that the latter was only an ordinary pirate and not a royal ambassador.
Annoyed by this, da Gama carried a few Nairs and sixteen fishermen mukkuva off with him by force.
Return Vasco da Gama left Calicut on 29 August Eager to set sail for home, he ignored the local knowledge of monsoon wind patterns that were still blowing onshore.
The fleet initially inched north along the Indian coast, and then anchored in at Anjediva island for a spell. They finally struck out for their Indian Ocean crossing on 3 October But with the winter monsoon yet to set in, it was a harrowing journey.
On the outgoing journey, sailing with the summer monsoon wind, da Gama's fleet crossed the Indian Ocean in only 23 days; now, on the return trip, sailing against the wind, it took days.
Remembering Vasco da Gama: Facts about the Portuguese navigator
Da Gama saw land again only on 2 Januarypassing before the coastal Somali city of Mogadishuthen under the influence of the Ajuran Empire in the Horn of Africa. The fleet did not make a stop, but passing before Mogadishu, the anonymous diarist of the expedition noted that it was a large city with houses of four or five storeys high and big palaces in its center and many mosques with cylindrical minarets.
Thereafter, the sailing was smoother. The diary record of the expedition ends abruptly here. Da Gama and his sickly brother eventually hitched a ride with a Guinea caravel returning to Portugal, but Paulo da Gama died en route. He eventually took passage on an Azorean caravel and finally arrived in Lisbon on 29 August according to Barros or early September 8th or 18th, according to other sources. Despite his melancholic mood, da Gama was given a hero's welcome and showered with honors, including a triumphal procession and public festivities.
Vasco da Gama - Wikipedia
King Manuel wrote two letters in which he described da Gama's first voyage, in July and Augustsoon after the return of the ships.
Girolamo Sernigi also wrote three letters describing da Gama's first voyage soon after the return of the expedition. The outward route of the South Atlantic westerlies that Bartolomeu Dias discovered infollowed and explored by da Gama in the open ocean, would be developed in subsequent years.
The expedition had exacted a large cost — one ship and over half the men had been lost. It had also failed in its principal mission of securing a commercial treaty with Calicut. Nonetheless, the spices brought back on the remaining two ships were sold at an enormous profit to the crown. Vasco da Gama was justly celebrated for opening a direct sea route to Asia. His path would be followed up thereafter by yearly Portuguese India Armadas. The spice trade would prove to be a major asset to the Portuguese royal treasury, and other consequences soon followed.
For example, da Gama's voyage had made it clear that the east coast of Africa, the Contra Costa, was essential to Portuguese interests; its ports provided fresh water, provisions, timber, and harbors for repairs, and served as a refuge where ships could wait out unfavorable weather. One significant result was the colonization of Mozambique by the Portuguese Crown. This turned out to be a complicated affair, for Sines still belonged to the Order of Santiago.
The master of the Order, Jorge de Lencastremight have endorsed the reward — after all, da Gama was a Santiago knight, one of their own, and a close associate of Lencastre himself. Finally, on February 20, da Gama began the return journey home arriving on October 11 He made da Gama a Portuguese viceroy in India.
Da Gama continued advising on Indian affairs until he was sent overseas again in Da Gama quickly re-established order among the Portuguese leaders. By the end of the year he fell ill.
Vasco da Gama died on December 24, in Cochin, India. He was buried in the local church. Inhis remains were brought back to Portugal. He accomplished what many explorers before him could not do. His discovery of this sea route helped the Portuguese establish a long-lasting colonial empire in Asia and Africa. The new ocean route around Africa allowed Portuguese sailors to avoid the Arab trading hold in the Mediterranean and Middle East.
Vasco da Gama opened a new world of riches by opening up an Indian Ocean route. His voyage and explorations helped change the world for Europeans. Oxford University Press, Akyeampong and Gates, Dictionary of African Biography, Patricia Calvert, Vasco Da Gama: So Strong a Spirit Tarrytown: Benchmark Books, Aileen Gallagher, Prince Henry, the Navigator: Pioneer of Modern Exploration New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc.
The Rosen Publishing Group, Pletcher, The Britannica Guide, Dictionary of African Biography.