Competition - Wikipedia
Clauses with Price-Quantity Competition Yield Cournot Outcomes» . A class of examples is given by the various meeting-competition clauses (MCC). I am sure you've come across similar 'meet-the-competition' or MCC offers Economists refer to such practice as an example of tacit collusion. The prevalent use of “most favored nation” (MFN) clauses in commercial in the economics and legal literature and by practitioners and enforcement they may also result in competitive harm and a loss of consumer welfare. .. (also known as “meeting the competition clauses” or “best price clauses”).
In recent decades, competition law has also been sold as good medicine to provide better public servicestraditionally funded by tax payers and administered by democratically accountable governments. Hence competition law is closely connected with the law on deregulation of access to markets, providing state aids and subsidies, the privatisation of state-owned assets and the use of independent sector regulators, such as the United Kingdom telecommunications watchdog Ofcom.
Behind the practice lies the theory, which over the last fifty years has been dominated by neo-classical economics. Markets are seen as the most efficient method of allocating resources, although sometimes they failand regulation becomes necessary to protect the ideal market model. Behind the theory lies the history, reaching back further than the Roman Empire. The business practices of market traders, guilds and governments have always been subject to scrutiny and sometimes severe sanctions.
Since the twentieth century, competition law has become global. The two largest, most organised and influential systems of competition regulation are United States antitrust law and European Community competition law. The respective national authorities, the U. Competition law is growing in importance every day, which warrants for its careful study. Trade[ edit ] Competition is also found in trade.
For nations, as well as firms it is important to understand trade dynamics in order to market their goods and services effectively in international markets. Balance of trade can be considered a crude, but widely used proxy for international competitiveness across levels: Research data hints that exporting firms have a higher survival rate and achieve greater employment growth compared with non-exporters.
Using a simple concept to measure heights that firms can climb may help improve execution of strategies.
- Meet-or-release contract
International competitiveness can be measured on several criteria but few are as flexible and versatile to be applied across levels as Trade Competitiveness Index TCI  Politics[ edit ] Competition is also found in politics.
In democraciesan election is a competition for an elected office. In other words, two or more candidates strive and compete against one another to attain a position of power.
The winner gains the seat of the elected office for a predefined period of time, towards the end of which another election is usually held to determine the next holder of the office. In addition, there is inevitable competition inside a government. Because several offices are appointed, potential candidates compete against the others in order to gain the particular office. Departments may also compete for a limited amount of resources, such as for funding.
Finally, where there are party systemselected leaders of different parties will ultimately compete against the other parties for lawsfunding and power. Finally, competition also exists between governments.
Each country or nationality struggles for world dominance, power, or military strength. For example, the United States competed against the Soviet Union in the Cold War for world power, and the two also struggled over the different types of government in these cases representative democracy and communism.
The result of this type of competition often leads to worldwide tensions, and may sometimes erupt into warfare. The Olympic Games are regarded as the international pinnacle of sports competition. While some sports and games such as fishing or hiking have been viewed as primarily recreational, most sports are considered competitive. The majority involve competition between two or more persons sometimes using horses or cars. For example, in a game of basketballtwo teams compete against one another to determine who can score the most points.
When there is no set reward for the winning team, many players gain a sense of pride. In addition, extrinsic rewards may also be given. Athletes, besides competing against other humans, also compete against nature in sports such as whitewater kayaking or mountaineeringwhere the goal is to reach a destination, with only natural barriers impeding the process.
A regularly scheduled for instance annual competition meant to determine the "best" competitor of that cycle is called a championship. Baseballa competitive sport Competitive sports are governed by codified rules agreed upon by the participants. Violating these rules is considered to be unfair competition.
Thus, sports provide artificial not natural competition; for example, competing for control of a ball, or defending territory on a playing field is not an innate biological factor in humans. Athletes in sports such as gymnastics and competitive diving compete against each other in order to come closest to a conceptual ideal of a perfect performance, which incorporates measurable criteria and standards which are translated into numerical ratings and scores by appointed judges.
Sports competition is generally broken down into three categories: While most sports competitions are recreation, there exist several major and minor professional sports leagues throughout the world. The Olympic Gamesheld every four years, is usually regarded as the international pinnacle of sports competition.
Education[ edit ] Competition is a major factor in education. On a global scale, national education systems, intending to bring out the best in the next generation, encourage competitiveness among students through scholarships. Countries such as England and Singapore have special education programmes which cater for specialist students, prompting charges of academic elitism.
Upon receipt of their academic results, students tend to compare their grades to see who is better. In severe cases, the pressure to perform in some countries is so high that it can result in stigmatization of intellectually deficient students, or even suicide as a consequence of failing the exams; Japan being a prime example see Education in Japan. This has resulted in critical re-evaluation of examinations as a whole by educationalists[ citation needed ].
Critics of competition as a motivating factor in education systems, such as Alfie Kohnassert that competition actually has a net negative influence on the achievement levels of students, and that it "turns all of us into losers" Kohn Economist Richard Layard has commented on the harmful effects, stating "people feel that they are under a great deal of pressure.
They feel that their main objective in life is to do better than other people. That is certainly what young people are being taught in school every day. And it's not a good basis for a society. Students with a high level of agency thrive on competition, are self-motivated, and are willing to risk failure. Compared to their counterparts who are low in agency, these students are more likely to be flexible, adaptable and creative as adults.
The Albee Award, sponsored by the Yale Drama Series, is among the most prestigious playwriting awards. Game of chance In Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, competitions or lottos are the equivalent of what are commonly known as sweepstakes in the United States.
The correct technical name for Australian consumer competitions is a trade promotion lottery or lottos. A trade promotion lottery or competition is a free entry lottery run to promote goods or services supplied by a business. An example is where you purchase goods or services and then given the chance to enter into the lottery and possibly win a prize. A trade promotion lottery can be called a lotto, competition, contest, sweepstake, or giveaway. Such competitions can be games of luck randomly drawn or skill judged on an entry question or submissionor possibly a combination of both.
People that enjoy entering competitions are known as compers. Many compers attend annual national conventions. In over members of the online competitions community of lottos. Social psychologistsfor instance, study the nature of competition. They investigate the natural urge of competition and its circumstances. They also study group dynamicsto detect how competition emerges and what its effects are. Sociologistsmeanwhile, study the effects of competition on society as a whole.
In addition, anthropologists study the history and prehistory of competition in various cultures. They also investigate how competition manifested itself in various cultural settings in the past, and how competition has developed over time. Competitiveness Many philosophers and psychologists have identified a trait in most living organisms which can drive the particular organism to compete.
Meeting Competition Sample Clauses
This trait, called competitiveness, is viewed as an innate biological trait [ citation needed ]which coexists along with the urge for survival. Competitiveness, or the inclination to compete, though, has become synonymous with aggressiveness and ambition in the English language. More advanced civilizations integrate aggressiveness and competitiveness into their interactionsas a way to distribute resources and adapt.
Many plants compete with neighboring ones for sunlight. However, Stephen Jay Gould and others have argued that as one ascends the evolutionary hierarchy, competitiveness the survival instinct becomes less innate, and more a learned behavior. Consequently, if survival requires competitive behaviors, the individual will compete, and if survival requires co-operative behaviors, the individual will co-operate.
In the case of humans, therefore, aggressiveness may be an innate characteristic, but a person need not be competitive at the same time, for instance when scaling a cliff.
On the other hand, humans seem also to have a nurturing instinct, to protect newborns and the weak. While that does not necessitate co-operative behavior, it does help. The two academic bodies of thought on the assessment of competitiveness are the Structure Conduct Performance Paradigm and the more contemporary New Empirical Industrial Organisation model.
Predicting changes in the competitiveness of business sectors is becoming an integral and explicit step in public policymaking. It is also used in informal writing to show contraction or letters left out.
Possession or relationship The apostrophe precedes the 's' in singular words and plurals that do not end in 's'. It follows the 's' in plurals that end in 's'.
Life Tonic articles
The apostrophe is not used with the possessive pronouns 'hers', 'yours', 'theirs' and 'its'. The province's 75 school districts are administered by locally elected boards.
Modern estimates of England's total population vary between 1 and 3 million. Two years earlier, The Economist had described gambling, as Britain's second biggest industry.
The annual per capita consumption of sugar, between the Queen's accession androse to 54 lb. Newly married, neatly permed and wearing the very latest in expensive Western wedding garb, they head for the groom's sleek sports car under a hail of rice.
By then Leonardo's expertise with paint brush and palette, pen and pencil was already well advanced. In contrast to the all-inclusiveness of other countries' socialised medical services, 40m Americans have no coverage at all.
The intention of this new alliance is to make the fight against the administration's policy on cryptography a populist issue and to derail potentially threatening legislation. Hemp's environmental credentials are indisputable. The third and main reason is the process of extracting fibre from the plant's stem. The weather's unpredictability makes this risky - farmers can easily lose their whole crop. Common mistakes An apostrophe cannot be used to make plurals.
The following - from the University of Hertfordshire - are not possible: The quotation marks should enclose the actual words of the author and all bibliographical information must be given. Hillocks similarly reviews dozens of research findings. He writes, "The available research suggests that teaching by written comment on compositions is generally ineffective" p.
For example, McCawley stated in" Note the punctuation before the quotation marks: When a reporting verb is used to introduce the quotation, a comma is used. He stated, "The 'placebo effect,' When the quotation is integrated into the structure of your sentence, no punctuation is used. Richterich and Chancerelp.