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Full text of "War slang : American fighting words and phrases since the Civil War"

Morgan and his captors. Page Order: Leaflet Available also through the Library of Congress web site in two forms: as facsimile page images and as full text in. virgin-mother-grub: me too, terezi Captor Grubs were in but now Makara Grubs are taking the stage . I apparently did not know real hate until I met Terezi . BOUKBONS TO MEET Will Hear Eustace Smith Charles Briggs All branches of Reno county Eourbondom Rogers-no relation to the late humorist or to Will Rogers, con WheatThreat White Grubs Found In Reno County Plants. which yielded four "public enemies," but when the smoke cleared both captors and captives.

The ordinary price of these licenses was six hundred crowns each, and they were mostly purchased of the Governor General by the merchants, and by them sold to the traders and Coureuzrs des Bois. The privilege granted in a sincge license was the loading of two large canoes, each of which was manned by six men, and freighted with merchandise valued at a thousand crowns.

This was furnished to the traders at an advance of about fifteen per cent. The actual profit on these voyages was about one hundred per cent. On the return of the expedition, the merchant took from the gross proceeds six hundred crowns for his license, one thousand crowns for the prime cost of his goods, and from the remainder forty per cent. At the capitulation of Quebec, September i8th,Detroit, Mackinaw and all the present territory of Michigan was ceded by the French to the English.

Before the conquest of the country, Michigan preserved no distinct and independent character and was far removed from the seat of war. The eastern line of the State was a ranging ground for Jesuit Missionaries and traders in their religious and mercantile operations through the wilderness.

I5 vating their small patches of ground in quietude and happiness. The interior had been but little explored save by the wood ranger or Jesuit, who traveled through the Indian trails, which wound along pleasant landscapes, here stretching on a sunny hillside, and ther i overshadowed by silent primeval forests.

Drafts indeed had been made by the French government to forward their campaigns, and a number of soldiers, drawn from the lake country, were present at Braddock's defeat. Hostile bands of Warriors were also sent on in emergencies, from the lake shores, to devastate the English settlements, but peace in the main as yet, smiled on its dominions. Immediately after the capitulation at Quebec, a detachment of troops under Major Rogers, was sent to take possession of Michigan. Wvhen nearing the Detroit river, they were met by the celebrated Indian Chief, Pontiac, who was for the first time then brought to the public notice, but afterwards became celebrated for his bravery, far-seeing, deep planned, and well executed expeditions.

He was the chief of the Algonquin Confederacy; the autocrat of the savages along the lakes, distinguished for his noble form, commanding address and proud demeanor. He seems to have allied to himself the respect and confidence of all the Indians in this region, and was a marked example of the grandeur which is sometimes found among the savages of the American forest, with as.

He was grasping in his projects, his courage was unconquerable. His pride was the pride of the proudest chief of the proudest nation on earth.

As an orator, he was more remarkable for pointedness and vigor, than for burning eloquence. He had seen them pushing their conquests through the country, destroying his people, driving the game from the hunting grounds, which had been bequeathed them from their forefathers, and crimsoning the land with the blood of his companions and friends-the French.

About eight miles above Detroit, on an island, he made his summer residence, and in winter had his lodging place at an Ottawa village opposite, on the Canada shore. When he was informed of the advance of Major Rogers, who commanded the first English detachment that ever advanced into his quarters, he was aroused like a lion in his den.

On the 7th of November, when Rogers arrived at the mouth of the Chogage river, he was met by a party of Ottawa messengers who requested him to halt his forces until Pontiac came up, which was done. Pontiac's first salutation was to ask "how he dared to enter his country without his permission. I 7 With this information friendly messages were exchanged, also several belts of wampum.

On the next morning Pontiac appeared at the English camp and informed Rogers that he had made peace with the English, and, as a pledge, both smoked the calumet. Pontiac immediately sent messengers ahead instructing the Indians to let the English pass, and accompanied Rogers to the Detroit river, furnishing him with venison, turkeys, and parched corn, and in return received wampum and ammunition. On the arrival of the English in the vicinity of Detroit, a dispatch was sent to the French commandant, and after some parley the post was turned over to the English, the citizens taking the oath of allegiance to that government and the French soldiers being sent to Philadelphia.

Major Rogers having made a treaty with the Indians of the country, advanced toward Lake Huron, leaving Captain Cempbell in command at Detroit. It was his intention to take possession of Mackinaw also, but the ice prevented him from going by water, and not being prepared with snow shoes to cross the country, he returned to Detriot, and on the 21st of December,started for Pittsburg, leaving Captain Campbell in charge of the station.

Thus the French power in Michigan was forever overthrown. The social condition of the settlers was not much improved by the transfer from the French to the English. Coin as a circulating medium, was introduced by the English in lieu of peltries, which had been used by the French.

Although the English government had succeeded to the dominion of the northwestern lakes, it did not inherit the friendship of the Algonquin tribes in that quarter. These tribes from the first regarded the whites as intruders, and the smile which played upon the countenance of Pontiac when he first met the detachment of Rogers, only tended to conceal a settled hatred. His professions of friendship to the English were doubtless a matter of policy until he should plot their destruction.

The French had been friends to his race. They had lodged in the same wigwam; drank at the same stream; they had hunted and fought side by side, and were mixed in blood. No sooner, therefore, were the English established on the lakes, than he projected the design of undermining them in this quarter by destroying their forts. His plan was to attack all the English posts at the same time by stratagem, to massacre the garrisons, take possession of the points, and oppose the advance of the British upon the northwestern waters.

He presumed, on good ground, that the success of the Indians in this enterprise, would establish their confidence and combine them in one general confederacy against the English government. Some of his own tribe, the Ottawas, had been disgraced by blows firom the English intruders. As soon as the plan of his policy had been matured, Pontiac called a grand council of warriors at the river Aux Gorce, and there addressed them with great vigor and eloquence.

Taking advantage of the superstition which is natural to the Indian character, he related dreams as having occurred to himself and others, to the effect that "they were to drive these dogs in red clothing from the land. Belts and messengers were soon after sent to the Indians along the whole frontier, stretching a thousand miles along the lakes, in order to secure their co-operation.

Joseph on the St. The plan had been so carefully laid as to create no suspicion in the minds of the English. It broke like lightning from a midnight cloud. Detroit, from its location, was deemed the most important post, as it commanded an extensive region of navigation and trade upon the upper lakes, and stood as a gate to the northwestern waters.

Pontiac determined to superintend its capture in person. At that time it was garrisoned by one hundred and twenty-two men and eight officers, of whom Major Gladwin was commander.


Anchored in front of the fort were two armed vessels, and the fort was protected by three mortars, two six pounders and one three pounder. These were badly mounted and better calculated to terrify the Indians than for substantial defense. Within the limits of the town were also about forty persons connected with the fur trade who were supplied with provisions and arms.

Pontiac's plan for the destruction of the fort exhibited remarkable cunning as well as strategy. He instructed his warriors to cut off their rifles so as to conceal them under their blankets, gain admission to the fort, and at a preconcerted signal, rush upon the troops and open the gate for their companions on the outside, who would stand ready to co-operate with those within. In order to carry his plan into execution he encamped near Detroit and sent word to Major Gladwin that he and his warriors wished to hold a council the next day for the purpose of "brightening the chain of peace.

On the evening of the 7th an Indian woman who had been employed by the officers of the post, on coming to return some work she had been doing, lingered around creating the impression that all was not right, and upon being questioned told them they had always been kind and she wished them no harm. The officers considering it more for the purpose of fright than anything else, put but little confidence in the story; but that night everything was put in readiness in case her prediction should prove true.

The next day Pontiac and his warriors were received in the usual manner, and when it came to the point where he was to make the signal, the officers unsheathed their swords and demanded to know why they had come thus armed, at the same time opening one of their blankets, displaying a shot gun. The Indians were taken wholly by surprise. Major Gladwin opened the gate telling them to leave before his young men fell upon and slaughtered them, but as he had promised them protection he would fulfill his word.

As soon as the savages were beyond the gate, they gave a yell and fired on the garrison. They then proceeded to the common where an English woman and her two sons lived, whom they fell upon and massacred.

The cannibalism of the savages at that time is exhibited in the fact that a respectable Frenchman was requested to repair to their camp and partake of some soup. He complied with the invitation, and after he had eaten, was informed that he had feasted on a part of the English woman.

A Frenchman and his family, living three miles up the river, were also butchered with the exception of one. For some time a desultory warfare was kept up by the Indians, firing from behind the buildings in the vicinity of the fort.

Major Campbell was much respected by the French and Indians for his kindness, and it became an important object with Pontiac to get this officer into his posession to secure the downfall of the fort, and for this purpose he induced some French residents to seek an interview with the Major, informing him that Pontiac wished him to come to his camp that they might terminate the war and smoke the pipe of peace, and at the same time Pontiac gave the most solemn assurance of his safety.

Under this promise, he, in company with a Lieutenant repaired to the camp, where at first they were well received. The crafty chief however did not comply with his promise and the English officers were detained.

The Lieutenant shortly after made his escape and returned to the fort in safety. The Major was offered his liberty for the surrender of the fort, but Pontiac's previous treachery had weakened all confidence in his word, and the proposition was spurned with indignation. The captivity of Major Campbell had an unfortunate termination. An Ottawa chief of note had been killed at Mackinaw, and his nephew hastened to Detroit for revenge, where he found Major Campbell and immediately dispatched him with his tomahawk, and fled to Saginaw to escape the vengeance of Pontiac.

The siege of Detroit was uninterruptedly kept up for eleven months with varying success on-the part of the besiegers, when it was relieved by General Bradstreet with three thousand men. Twice the effort to relieve them had been made previously. Pontiac's abilities were fully demonstrated duriug the protracted struggle. He issued bills of eredit, made of bark, with a beaver, the to tern of his tribe drawn upon them, in exchange for the products of the French.

These bills were faithfully redeemed. The neutrality of the French was a drawback to his success, and he did everything in his power to bring them to his side. Councils were called at which he made speeches, relating in glowing style how he and his young men had helped them to defend their country against the English, and accused them of carrying his plans to the eneny.

And as a last resort, throwing down a belt and saying to them, "if you are French and with us, take that belt; if not, we declare war against you. The armed vessels in the river were another source of annoyance to him, and he determined to burn them. For this purpose the barns of many of the inhabitants were thrown down and made into a raft, and filled with pitch and other combustibles that would burn readily. The whole mass was towed up the river and fired, under the supposition that the stream would carry it down into contact with, and set fire to the vessels.

The plan was successful and the burning rafts floated harmlessly down the river. Upon the arrival of General Bradstreet, it became evident to the Indians that they could not succeed against so heavy a force; they therefore laid down their arms and concluded a treaty of peace. Pontiac, however, stood aloof and took no part in the negotiations, and soon after retired to the Illinois, where he was assassinated by an Indian of the Peoria tribe, about the year I, thus ending the career of a most remarkable man.

The Ottawas, Potawotomies and Chippewas made a common cause in avenging his death by waging war with and nearly exterminating the tribe of his murderer. While these events were passing at Detroit, others of no less importance or destructive in their character were occurring at Mackinaw. They were set in motion by the master mind of Pontiac, who had plotted the overthrow of the other posts on the lakes.

At that time the fort at Mackinaw was in the middle of a two acre lot enclosed with cedar pickets. On the bastions were planted two small brass cannon, taken some years before by a party of Canadians in an expedition against the trading post of the IIudson Bay company. The stockade contained about thirty houses, also a chapel, in which mass was regularly held by the priest missionary. The inhabitants derived the principal part of their support from the traders who congregated here on their voyages to and from Montreal.

It contained in about thirty families. The garrison at that time was composed of ninety-three officers and soldiers; there were also four English merchants at the post. On the 3d of June a large collection of Indians had gathered in the vicinity of the fort, under various pretexts. As a ruse a game called baggatiway was proposed between the Chippewas and Sacs for a high wager. It was played with a bat and ball. Two posts were planted in the ground some distance apart, each party having its post.

The game consisted in propelling the ball, which was placed in the center, toward the post of the adversary. The design of the Indians was to throw the ball over the pickets and in a natural manner all rush for it in the heat of the game, thus securing an entrance to the fort. This stratagem was successful. Major Ethington, the commandant, was present at the game, and laid a wager on the side of the Chippewas, while all the garrison who could be induced were drawn outside the pickets for the purpose of weakening the defenses of the fort.

In the midst of the game there was an Indian war yell, and the crowd of Indians who had rushed for the ball within the pickets were seen cutting down and scalping those within the fort. The massacre of the garrison, and the destruction of the fort by burning, completed their project.

A number of canoes, filled with English traders, arrived about the same time. After the fall of the fort, the savages fearing the English and Indians who had not joined in the plot, divided their forces, a part going to the Island of Mackinaw, the remainder to assist Pontiac in the siege of Detroit. During the whole period of the American Revolution Michigan was in a state of quietude, being composed of a part of the Canadian Territory and far removed from the active scenes of war her people rested in comparative peace.

Although serving as a magazine of arms for the savages, and a mart where the price of scalps was paid, it exhibited no prominent events which gave interest and coloring to the page of history, from the fact that it was not the theatre of action. The war which was waged in the Eastern part of the country was, however, brought to a termination by Washington, and the treaty of included Michigan within the American boundaries.

The important ordinance for the organization of the Northwestern Territory was passed in July, I This ordinance has been the basis for all Territorial Governments since that time.

It was drawn by Nathan Dane, of Beverly, Massachusetts. The Territory was made into one District, subject to a division at the will of Congress. It was provided that until the free white male inhabitants, should amount to five thousand, the government should be vested in a Governor and three Judges, who, as well as Secretary, should be appointed by Congress.

The Governor was also vested with the power of dividing the Districts into Counties and Townships, and of appointing civil officers for the same. It was provided that when the free male inhabitants reached five thousand in number, a legislative council should be established.

This council was to be composed of five members, who were to hold their office for two years, unless removed by Congress, and were appointed in the following manner: The council had power to enact laws, in connection with the General Assembly- and to elect delegates to Congress.

Inthe Northwestern Territory assumed the second grade of territorial government, and the Territory of Michigan, as afterwards established, comprised one County, that of Wayne. It then sent one Representative to the General Assembly of the Northwestern Territory, then held at Chilicothe, Ohio, and for this purpose the first election was held in Michigan under the American Government. Up to this time the people had paid but little attention to agriculture, but had devoted themselves to the procuring of furs and trading with the Indians; and when we contrast the difference between that time and this, and the improvements that have been made, the change seems almost miraculous.

On January nith, I, by an act of Congress, Michigan was erected into a separate Territory, the Government to be established on the plan which had been prescribed by the ordinance of I William Hull was appointed Governor, Augustus B.

On the second Tuesday in July, I, the oaths of office were administered to the several officers, and Michigan commenced its governmental operations.

This was done, however, under very unfavorable circumstances. On the IIth of June the town of Detroit had been consumed by fire. It at that time covered about two acres of ground, and was very compactly built, with streets but fourteen feet wide, and as a matter of defense the village was environed with strong and solid pickets. The houses being so closely built, and composed of com bustible materials, were soon swept away by the conflagration, and when the officers arrived they found the body of the people encamped on the public grounds, while some had taken refuge in the country on the banks of the river.

In one case, the defendant was to perform a certain number of day's work, in another, the plaintiff was to deliver a certain number of cords of wood on the bank of the river, as penalties for nonfulfillment of contracts.

In I, a land office was established at Detroit, more for the purpose of adjusting titles that had been granted by previous administrations, than for sales; for as yet the Indian title had not yet been sufficiently extinguished to warrant the opening of lands to market. From the time that the Americans took possession of Michigan until the close of the war of I, their possessions were anything but peaceful, surrounded on all sides by Indians acting under the impression that their lands were to be taken from them in case of their success, and urged on by British emissaries, whose object was to repossess the country they had ceded by the treaty of peace at the termination of the Revolution.

It was the objeet of the British government to combine all the savage tribes in one grand confederacy for the extermination of the Americans. Even before war was declared, their agents were busy among them distributing presents and giving council. Tecumseh believing the British to be their true friends greatly aided in bringing the Indians to their wishes.

His counsels were listened to with respect, both by the Indians and the British. He held under the English government a commission as Brigadier General. He was in no way inflated by the tawdry tinsel that pervades military circles, but confined himself to the dress of his tribe.

History of Cass County, from to

At one time when he had given important information, he was presented by General Brock with a sash from his own person as a token of honor. Tecumseh handed it to another saying, that he was an older and better warrior than himself.

Iis purposes were unselfish, devoting himself to the benefit of his people, and in no way aggrandizing or turning anything to his own personal benefit. He fell at the memorable battle of the Thames.

The war offell with great force upon the people of Michigan. Situated on the confines of civilization, and in the immediate vicinity of the strongholds of the enemy, they suffered all the hardships and horrors of border warfare. General Hull, at this time acting Governor of the territory, was clothed with full discretionary power to act as he thought proper, either offensively or defensively. This power was granted because he was supposed to know the chair acter of the country and the nature and strength of the enemy better than any other person, and had served with credit under Washington.

Some blame should be attached to the general government for not notifying the outposts of the dec. For the purpose of defending Michigan and invading Canada, an army of twelve hundred men was drafted in Ohio by order of the President and, collected at Dayton, and this force was considerably augumented by volunteers. To these was added a fourth regiment composed of militia and regulars numbering about three hundred men, under the command of Colonel Miller; the whole force was placed under General Hull.

This army was ordered to immediately repair to Detroit, and started about the middle of June. They had to cut their way through the trackless wilderness and swamps, and after many hardships arrived at the point of destination, on the third of the same month.

General Hull had been to Washington for the purpose of removing some of the embarassments in his way, and on his return had dispatched his baggage, documents and disabled soldiers in a vessel via.

On her appearance at that point the vessel was captured, and news of the declaration of war first broke upon the astonished crew from the lips of the British as they boarded the American vessel. For some time after the arrival of the army at Detroit, the time was employed in cleaning up the arms that had become rusted and dirty in their march through the wilderness, and recrpiting the men. This would have been in accordance with the policy of the war department, and the possession of Malden would have been of immense advantage in future campaigns.

Having made arrangements for the expedition, General Hull with his army, crossed over to Sandwich on the I2th of July, and established a fortified camp. Here he issued a proclamation which was from the pen of Colonel Cass, and was of an energetic and impressive character, and backed by the bayonets of his army had the effect of keeping the Canadians and Indians, who were opposed to the American cause, on neutral ground.

He also issued an invitation to them to come over to the American side, stating the advantages that would accrue to them under a republican form of government, and many of them availed themselves of the privilege. On the I7th of July, while Hull was lying at Sandwich in a state of torpidity, a detachment of the enemy was sent to Mackinaw, and the first intimation that Lieutenant Hanks, the commander of the post, received of the declaration of war was the summons to surrender, with the British under the walls of his fort; and as the force under his command numbered but fifty, while the British and Indians numbered over one thousand, his only course was to surrender it.

His pretext for not making the attack was the want of heavy artillery which he was daily expecting from Detroit, but, as subsequent events show, it was from a want of pluck. Hull with some spirit refused, and on the I6th Brock crossed over the river under cover of his armed vessels, landing near Springwell, and im mediately marched upon the fort. Hull in the meantime called in the troops that had been sent out to harass the enemy in their approach, and soon after hoisted a white flag, in token of surrender.

The regular troops were surrendered as prisoners of war, the public property given up, and the militia ordered to return home and not to serve again during the war, unless regularly exchanged. Thus ended the inglorious campaign of General Hull on the frontier. He was afterward tried before a court martial for treason and cowardice. The court gave a verdict of acquittal on the first count, but condemned and sentenced him to death on the second, at the same time recommending him to the mercy of the President of the United States.

His life was spared by the Executive, but he was dishonorably dismissed from the service. After the capitulation of Detroit, the English established a provisional government over Michigan.

The Indians who had assisted them claimed large rewards for their services, and were permitted to ravage the houses of the defenseless inhabitants, who were compelled to submit to the atrocitiesof the savages or exile themselves, in self defense, to remote regions.

From the time of Hull's surrender until the decisive victory of Commodore Perry on Lake Erie, Michigan was in a state of unrest. Surrounded on all sides by British troops and their allies, the savages, all communication by water cut off by the British squadron, their condition was anything but enviable. Among the fruits of that brilliant victory, came the opening of communication with the army in Ohio and the dawn of better days for the pioneers. On the 23d of September General Harrison with his army set out for Malden.

On his arrival at Amburstburg, instead of finding British arms to oppose him, he met the Canadians with their wives and daughters, bearing in their hands emblems of peace, who had assembled to solicit his protection. General Proctor had evacuated Malden after having burned the fort and store houses, and retired to the Thames, about eighty miles from Detroit. The American forces took possession of Detroit and immediately marched in pursuit of Proctor, and the battle of the Thames, in which Proctor was defeated, concluded the brilliant campaign of General Harrison on the Northwestern frontier.

This was the most directly effective battle fought during the whole war, so far as Michigan was concerned. The British troops and Indians numbered about twenty-four hundred, while the American army comprised twenty-seven hundred, of whom one hundred and twenty were regulars, thirty were Indians, and the remainder were militia, infantry and mounted volunteers, armed with rifles and muskets. The victory was decisive. Tecumseh, the grand instigator of the Indians to the assistance of the British, fell in the engagement.

Six brass field pieces were recaptured, which had been surrendered by Hull at Detroit, and on two of these were engraved the following inscription: The only part of Michigan Territory then remaining in the possession of the British was the Island of Mackinaw. This island is about three miles in diameter, and was then covered with a dense forest, occasionally broken by a small patch of cleared land. On one side was the fort adjoining the village, and on the other a wilderness.

This post remained in possession of the British until the treaty of peace, February I7th, 18I5. He had served with distinction through the war and seemed in every way well qualified for the position; nor was this confidence misplaced, for to no other one man do the people of Michigan owe so great a debt of gratitude as to Governor Cass. Clearheaded, bold and energetic, he found the country in a state of dilapidation, with morals corrupted by long contact with warfare and its attendant evils, the people demoralized by the devastations of the British and their savage allies-in fact a worse state of affairs could hardly be imagined than existed when he assumed the reins of government.

He brought order out of chaos, and immediately began a system of improvements, and prosecuted them with an energy worthy the cause he had undertaken. The only access to the Territory at that time was through the black swamp, then an almost impassable morass, and the military road along the Detroit river, and this was made almost impassible by the refuse of war strewn along it during the occupation by the British.

The interior was one dense wilderness, only inhabited by the Indians and an occasional French trader on the streams. Frenchtown and Detroit were the two principal settlements on the lower peninsula, and these had been nearly destroyed during the war.

On the I6th of February,Congress passed an act for the election of a delegate to Congress from the Territory. As yet no land had been brought into market, from the fact that the Indian titles had not been fully extinguished, consequently there was no inducement for settlers to come in. But in I8I9, a treaty at Saginaw was effected, by which a considerable part of the eastern portion of the Territory was ceded and brought into market.

This produced a new era in its progress, inciting immigration and settlement by the low price and easy terms of payment, it soon brought into the country a large increase of population, and in I this population had increased to eight thousand eight hundred and ninety-six.

A serious drawback had been imposed on the settlement by a report of the commissioners who had been sent out by Congress for the purpose of locating two million acres of land for the soldiers of the war of They returned without locating, and reported the country to be low, sterile, and filled with swamps.

In I Detroit contained a population of fourteen hundred and fifteen inhabitants, and was then a point of considerable activity and business. The Island of Mackinaw, which was at that time the principal mart of the fur trade, had a population of four hundred and fifty, which was augmented to two thousand at certain intervals, by the accession of voy.

Walk-in-the-water was the only steamboat that plied on the lakes, and this was deemed sufficient to transact all the commercial business of the Territory. This boat made her first trip to Mackinaw in On the 24th of May, i, Governor Cass started on an exploring expedition to the upper country, which he had determined upon and made preparations for, during the preceding year.

The objects were to examine the soil, the number and condition of the Indian tribes, and their character; to investigate the mineralogical resources of the country, especially the copper mines of Lake Superior, to collect the material for a map, to select the site for a garrison at the foot of Lake Superior; and also to perfect treaties with the Indian tribes in that quarter.

For that object a memorial had been forwarded to Mr. Calhoun, then Secretary of War, which was. An escort of soldiers was furnished. The expedition was provided with bark canoes manned by Canadian voyageurs and Indians.

They coursed along the track which, although yet an unbroken wilderness, had nevertheless been made memorable ground by the wars of the savages and the hardships and adventures of the early traders, soldiers and missionaries of the French government.

By the treaty ofthe United States were entitled to all the land in the Nortwestern Territory which had been granted by the Indians to the French and English governments, and on that ground the American government claimed the concession which had formerly been made to the French at the Sault de St.

Marie, through which it had been occupied as a military post. A council was accordingly held for the purpose of establishing this grant, and the object distinctly stated to the Indians through an interpreter.

They were opposed to the proposition of Governor Cass, and endeavored to evade it by denying their knowledge of the original grant; and when the fact was pressed upon their conviction, they exhibited great dissatisfaction and gave a qualified refusal.

Some of the chiefs were in favor of allowing the grant, provided it should not be used as a garrison, alleging as a reason, that their young men might prove unruly and kill the cattle, if any should stray away from the post. This was intended and received as a threat, and Governor Cass in answer told them that so far as the establishment of a garrison at the Sault, he would spare them all trouble, for so sure as the sun rose and set, there would be an American garrison at that point, be their decision what it might.

The council was employed several hours in animated discussion, and the last chief who spoke, a Brigadier in the British service, drew his war lance and struck it furiously into the ground, and, pulling it out, kicked away the presents that had been laid before him, and the council broke up in confusion. In a few minutes the British flag was seen flying over the Indian encampment. Governor Cass immediately ordered his men under arms, and proceeding to the camp with an interpreter, took down the insulting flag, telling them at the same time that that was an indignity they should not be permitted to offer on American soil; that the flag was an emblem of national power; that two standards could not float over the same land, and they were forbidden to raise any but our own, and if they should presume again to attempt it, "the United States would set a strong foot upon their necks and crush them to the earth.

In a few minutes the Indian encamp: The Americans numbered sixty-six men, of whom thirty were regulars, and the savages could muster seventy or eighty well armed warriors. Some time having elapsed and no demonstration on the part of the Indians being made, the soldiers were dismissed to their tents.

In a little valley, beside a frozen stream and under beneficent spruce trees, he built a fire four days later. Somewhere in that white anarchy he had left behind him was Surprise Lake—somewhere, he knew not where; for a hundred hours of driftage and struggle through blinding, driving snow had concealed his course from him, and he knew not in what direction lay behind.

It was as if he had just emerged from a nightmare. He was not sure that four days or a week had passed. He had slept with the dogs, fought across a forgotten number of shallow divides, followed the windings of weird canyons that ended in pockets, and twice had managed to make a fire and thaw out frozen moose-meat.

And here he was, well-fed and well-camped. The storm had passed, and it had turned clear and cold. The lay of the land had again become rational. The creek he was on was natural in appearance, tand trended as it should toward the southwest. But Surprise Lake was as lost to him as it had been to all its seekers in the past. Here he shot a moose, and once again each wolf-dog carried a full fiftypound pack of meat.

As he turned down the McQuestion, he came upon a sledtrail. The late snows had drifted over, but underneath it was well-packed by travel.

His conclusion was that two camps had been established on the McQuestion, and that this was the connecting trail. Evidently, two cabins had been found and it was the lower camp, so he headed down the stream. It was forty below zero when he camped that night, and he fell asleep wondering who were the men who had rediscovered the Two Cabins and if he would fetch it next day. At the first hint of dawn he was under way, easily following the halfobliterated trail and packing the recent snow with his webbed shoes so that the dogs should not wallow.

And then it came, the unexpected, leaping out upon him on a bend of the river. It seemed to him that he heard and felt simultaneously. The crack of the rifle came from the right, and the bullet, tearing through and across the shoulders of his drill parka and woolen coat, pivoted him half around with the shock of its impact. He staggered on his twisted snowshoes to recover balance, and heard a second crack of the rifle.

This time it was a clean miss. He did not wait for more, but plunged across the snow for the sheltering trees of the bank, a hundred feet away. Again and again the rifle cracked, and he was unpleasantly aware of a trickle of warm moisture down his back. He climbed the bank, the dogs floundering behind, and dodged in among the trees and brush.

Slipping out of his snow-shoes, he wallowed forward at full length and peered cautiously out. Nothing was to be seen. Whoever had shot at him was lying quiet among the trees of the opposite bank.

Then, from down the river, he heard the unmistakable jingle of dog-bells. Peering out, he saw a sled round the bend. Only one man was with it, straining at the gee-pole and urging the dogs along.

The effect on Smoke was one of shock, for it was the first human he had seen since he parted from Shorty three weeks before. His next thought was of the potential murderer concealed on the opposite bank. Without exposing himself, Smoke whistled warningly.

The man did not hear, and came on rapidly. Again, and more sharply, Smoke whistled. The instant afterward, Smoke fired into the woods in the direction of the sound. The man on the river had been struck by the first shot. The shock of the high velocity bullet staggered him. He stumbled awkwardly to the sled, halffalling, and pulled a rifle out from under the lashings.

As he strove to raise it to his shoulder, he crumpled at the waist and sank down slowly to a sitting posture on the sled. Then, abruptly, as the gun went off aimlessly, he pitched backward and across a corner of the sled-load, so that Smoke could see only his legs and stomach.

From below came more jingling bells. The man did not move. Around the bend swung three sleds, accompanied by half a dozen men. Smoke cried warningly, but they had seen the condition of the first sled, and they dashed on to it. No shots came from the other bank, and Smoke, calling his dogs to follow, emerged into the open. Louis, a French-Canadian voyageur, Smoke decided, as were four of the others, obeyed.

A cry came from one of the voyageurs. The man explained the nature of his find. We got you red-handed. You see, it came from the other bank.

Not even a snowshoe rabbit had crossed it. Blackbeard, bending over the dead man, straightened up with a woolly, furry wad in his hand. Shredding this, he found imbedded in the centre the bullet which had perforated the body.

Arms Company ; yourn is manufactured by the J. It was patent to all that it had been fired once. The empty cartridge was still in the chamber. You can answer them questions later on.

It was three hours after dark when the dead man, Smoke, and his captors arrived at Two Cabins. By the starlight Smoke could make out a dozen or more recently built cabins snuggling about a larger and older cabin on a flat by the river barik. Thrust inside this older cabin, he found. The old man, as Smoke learned afterward, had. The camp of Two Cabins, he was also to learn, had been made the previous fall by a dozen men who arrived in half as many poling-boats loaded with provisions.

Here they had found the blind trapper, on the site of Two Cabins, and about his cabin they had built their own. Later arrivals, mushing up the ice with dog-teams, had tripled the population. There was plenty of meat in camp, and good low-pay dirt had been discovered and was being worked.

In five minutes, all the men of Two Cabins were jammed into the room. Smoke, shoved off into a corner, ignored and scowled at, his hands and feet tied with thongs of moosehide, looked on.

Thirty-eight men he counted, a wild and husky crew, all frontiersmen of the States or voyageurs from upper Canada. His captors told the tale over and over, each the centre of an excited and wrathful group. It was while counting the men that Smoke caught sight of a familiar face.

It was Breek, the man whose boat Smoke had run through the rapids. He wondered why the other did not come and speak to him, but himself gave no sign of recognition.

Full text of "The Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society"

Later, when with shielded face Breek passed him a wink, Smoke understood. Blackbeard, whom Smoke heard called Eli Harding, ended the discussion as to whether or not the prisoner should be immediately lynched.

That man belongs to me. Not on your life. I could a-done that myself when I found him. A draught that possessed all the rigidity of an icicle was boring into the front of his shoulder as he lay on his side facing the wall. When he had been tied into the bunk there had been no such draught, and now the outside air, driving into the heated atmosphere of the cabin with the pressure of fifty below zero, was sufficient advertisement that someone from without had pulled away the moss-chinking between the logs.

My hands are tied behind me and made fast to the leg of the bunk. But something must be done. And if you did you had your reasons. I want to get you out of this. They handled two men already—both grub-thieves. One they hiked from camp without an ounce of grub and no matches. He made about forty miles and lasted a couple of days before he froze stiff.

Two weeks ago they hiked the second man. They gave him his choice: He stood for forty lashes before he fainted. His bullet broke the skin on my shoulder. Get them to delay the trial till some one goes up and searches the bank where the murderer hid.

They take the evidence of Harding and the five Frenchmen with him. You see, things have been pretty monotonous.