Joseph McCarthy - Wikipedia
Potsdam had been a personal success for Truman—he appeared to get along . In this era of the Red Scare—Senator Joseph McCarthy leveled his infamous. Then, aghast at the Frankenstein he had largely created, Truman pulled consequences and Joe McCarthy had his brief but dismaying hour. (President Truman vetoed the Act—he said it “would make a mockery of our Bill of At the time, McCarthy was a first-term senator from Wisconsin who had won.
Vandenberg strongly supported Truman and overcame the doubts of isolationists such as Senator Robert A. Acheson laid out the "domino theory" in the starkest terms, comparing a communist state to a rotten apple that could spread its infection to an entire barrel. Vandenberg was impressed, and advised Truman to appear before Congress and "scare the hell out of the American people.
In his eighteen-minute speech, he stated: I believe it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes.
Anti-communists in both parties supported both Truman's proposed aid package and the doctrine behind it, and Collier's described it as a "popularity jackpot" for the President. In the words of historian James T.
Patterson"The Truman Doctrine was a highly publicized commitment of a sort the administration had not previously undertaken.
Its sweeping rhetoric, promising that the United States should aid all 'free people' being subjugated, set the stage for innumerable later ventures that led to globalistic commitments.
It was in these ways a major step. It dealt with Washington's concern over communism's domino effect, it enabled a media-sensitive presentation of the doctrine that won bipartisan support, and it mobilized American economic power to modernize and stabilize unstable regions without direct military intervention. It brought nation-building activities and modernization programs to the forefront of foreign policy.
Truman used disease imagery not only to communicate a sense of impending disaster in the spread of communism but also to create a "rhetorical vision" of containing it by extending a protective shield around non-communist countries throughout the world. It echoed the " quarantine the aggressor " policy Truman's predecessor, Franklin D. Roosevelthad sought to impose to contain German and Japanese expansion in "quarantine" suggested the role of public health officials handling an infectious disease.
The medical metaphor extended beyond the immediate aims of the Truman Doctrine in that the imagery combined with fire and flood imagery evocative of disaster provided the United States with an easy transition to direct military confrontation in later years with communist forces in Korea and Vietnam.
Eisenhower refused, saying privately "nothing would please him [McCarthy] more than to get the publicity that would be generated by a public repudiation by the President. According to some reports, Republican leaders were growing wary of McCarthy's methods and gave him this relatively mundane panel rather than the Internal Security Subcommittee —the committee normally involved with investigating Communists—thus putting McCarthy "where he can't do any harm," in the words of Senate Majority Leader Robert A.
Kennedy as an assistant counsel to the subcommittee. Cohn brought with him, as his assistant, Gerald David Schineheir to a hotel-chain fortune, who would bear much responsibility for triggering McCarthy's eventual downfall. This subcommittee would be the scene of some of McCarthy's most publicized exploits. When the records of the closed executive sessions of the subcommittee under McCarthy's chairmanship were made public in —04,  Senators Susan Collins and Carl Levin wrote the following in their preface to the documents: Senator McCarthy's zeal to uncover subversion and espionage led to disturbing excesses.
His browbeating tactics destroyed careers of people who were not involved in the infiltration of our government. His freewheeling style caused both the Senate and the Subcommittee to revise the rules governing future investigations, and prompted the courts to act to protect the Constitutional rights of witnesses at Congressional hearings. These hearings are a part of our national past that we can neither afford to forget nor permit to reoccur.
President Harry S. Truman Responds to Senator Joseph R. McCarthy's Accusations of Disloyalty
Many VOA personnel were questioned in front of television cameras and a packed press gallery, with McCarthy lacing his questions with hostile innuendo and false accusations. Morale at VOA was badly damaged, and one of its engineers committed suicide during McCarthy's investigation. Ed Kretzman, a policy advisor for the service, would later comment that it was VOA's "darkest hour when Senator McCarthy and his chief hatchet man, Roy Cohn, almost succeeded in muffling it.
Cohn toured Europe examining the card catalogs of the State Department libraries looking for works by authors he deemed inappropriate. McCarthy then recited the list of supposedly pro-communist authors before his subcommittee and the press. The State Department bowed to McCarthy and ordered its overseas librarians to remove from their shelves "material by any controversial persons, Communists, fellow travelersetc.
Don't be afraid to go in your library and read every book. Matthews as staff director of the subcommittee. One of the nation's foremost anti-communists, Matthews had formerly been staff director for the House Un-American Activities Committee. The appointment became controversial when it was learned that Matthews had recently written an article titled "Reds and Our Churches",   which opened with the sentence, "The largest single group supporting the Communist apparatus in the United States is composed of Protestant Clergymen.
McCarthy initially refused to do this. But as the controversy mounted, and the majority of his own subcommittee joined the call for Matthews's ouster, McCarthy finally yielded and accepted his resignation. For some McCarthy opponents, this was a signal defeat of the senator, showing he was not as invincible as he had formerly seemed.
McCarthy, newly married to Jean Kerr, cut short his honeymoon to open the investigation. He garnered some headlines with stories of a dangerous spy ring among the Army researchers, but after weeks of hearings, nothing came of his investigations. Shortly thereafter it came to the attention of the military bureaucracy that Peress, who was a member of the left-wing American Labor Partyhad declined to answer questions about his political affiliations on a loyalty-review form. Peress' superiors were therefore ordered to discharge him from the Army within 90 days.
McCarthy subpoenaed Peress to appear before his subcommittee on January 30, Peress refused to answer McCarthy's questions, citing his rights under the Fifth Amendment. Stevensdemanding that Peress be court-martialed.
On that same day, Peress asked for his pending discharge from the Army to be effected immediately, and the next day Brigadier General Ralph W. Zwickerhis commanding officer at Camp Kilmer in New Jerseygave him an honorable separation from the Army.
At McCarthy's encouragement, "Who promoted Peress? Army—McCarthy hearings Early inthe U. Army accused McCarthy and his chief counsel, Roy Cohnof improperly pressuring the Army to give favorable treatment to G. David Schinea former aide to McCarthy and a friend of Cohn's, who was then serving in the Army as a private.
The Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, usually chaired by McCarthy himself, was given the task of adjudicating these conflicting charges. The Army consulted with an attorney familiar with McCarthy to determine the best approach to attacking him. Based on his recommendation, it decided not to pursue McCarthy on the issue of communists in government: After hearing 32 witnesses and two million words of testimony, the committee concluded that McCarthy himself had not exercised any improper influence on Schine's behalf, but that Cohn had engaged in "unduly persistent or aggressive efforts".
The committee also concluded that Army Secretary Robert Stevens and Army Counsel John Adams "made efforts to terminate or influence the investigation and hearings at Fort Monmouth", and that Adams "made vigorous and diligent efforts" to block subpoenas for members of the Army Loyalty and Screening Board "by means of personal appeal to certain members of the [McCarthy] committee". Many in the audience saw him as bullying, reckless, and dishonest, and the daily newspaper summaries of the hearings were also frequently unfavorable.