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Another variable related to stress that could provide a link to health is the problems in the United States: a partial test of the Bales theory of alcoholism. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN KNOWLEDGE OFSTRESS THEORY Nowmuch of the medical and related literature on stress senshido.info primary role. Resource Theories of Stress: A Bridge between Systemic and Cognitive Viewpoints. 2. Coping and health sciences. It first was used in of Stress. Theories that focus on the specific relationship between external demands ( stressors) and.
One multidisciplinary review provides a broad consensus that stressors really only exert their effects through how an individual perceives and evaluates them Ganster and Rosen This experience is usually accompanied by attempts to cope with the underlying problem and by changes in psychological functioning, behaviour and function Aspinwall and TaylorGuppy and Weatherstone In order to recognise these external and internal elements of workplace stress, Cox outlined another modified transactional theory.
Additionally, in his later works, Lazarus stressed that his transactional theories of stress failed to acknowledge the outcomes associated with coping in specific social contexts and during interpersonal interactions Lazarus a. For instance, the Effort-Reward Imbalance ERI theory posits that effort at work is spent as part of a psychological contract, based on the norm of social reciprocity, where effort at work is remunerated with rewards and opportunities Siegrist Here, it is the imbalance in this contract that can result in stress or distress.
Yet in contrast to transactional theories of stress, this imbalance may not necessarily be subject to any appraisal, as the stressor may be an everyday constant occurrence.
Here, interactions may occur between objective realities and subjective perceptions and between environmental variables and individual variables. Yet the Job Demand-Control JDC theory supposes that work-related stress can result from the interaction between several psychological job demands relating to workload such as cognitive and emotional demands, interpersonal conflict, job control relating to decision authority agency to make work-related decisions and skill discretion breadth of work-related skills used Karasek Jr The JDC model is concerned with predicting outcomes of psychological strain, and workers who experience high demands paired with low control are more likely to experience work-related psychological distress and strain Beehr et al.
However, the original concept of job demand and control was expanded in to become the Demand Control Support DCS theory, describing how social support may also act as a buffer in high demand situations Johnson and Hall As social support as a coping mechanism can moderate the negative impacts of job stress, another later version of the JDC theory was developed to suggest that it is those individuals who experience high demands paired with low control and poor support who are most at risk of work-related psychological distress Van der Doef and Maes These later versions of the JDC theory were developed, as earlier versions were considered to be too simplistic and ignorant of the moderating effects of social support upon the main variables.
Allostatic Load Model of the Stress Process Early psychological models of stress may be suitable for describing how environmental events generate stressful appraisals for individuals.
Yet another theoretical model, devised via a multidisciplinary review of Work Stress and Employee Health identifies the intervening physiological processes that link stress exposure to health outcomes Ganster and Rosen This Allostatic load model of the stress process builds on earlier cognitive appraisal models of stress and the work of Seyle Seyle to describe the developments of allostasis in the process of stress.
This model proposes that continued overstimulation leads to dysregulation, and then to poor tertiary health outcomes.
However, the sequence of this model has proven difficult to validate empirically.
Additionally, this research is concerned with the psychological rather than the physical outcomes of work-related stress. The acute symptoms of stress are also set out, and these symptoms relate to the organisation, as well as the individual. This model is concerned with the long-term consequences of work-related stress, as well as the acute symptoms of, sources of, and the individual characteristics associated with work-related stress.
Yet work-related stressors cannot always remain separate from general life stressors. Illustrating this, the Conservation of Resources COR Model, an integrated model of stress looks to encompass several stress theories relating to work, life and family Hobfoll According to this theory, stress occurs when there is a loss, or threat of loss of resources. However, while a certain amount of stress is normal, chronic negative stress may be harmful to our health.
Holmes believes that the change resulting from both positive e. For example, when approached by a thief, you can either fight him or you can try to run away from him.
Spangler and Schieche examined the biobehavioral organization of infants with various qualities of attachment. They found that securely attached infants did not show an adrenocortical response.
Psychological Theories of Stress - James-Lange, Cannon-Bard
However, interestingly, adrenocortical activation during the Strange Situation was found for the insecure-ambivalent group, but not for the insecure-avoidant group. Pruessner, Hellhammer, and Kirschbaum studied the effects of burnout and perceived stress on early morning free cortisol levels after awakening. They found that higher levels of perceived stress were related to stronger increases in cortisol levels after awakening after a low dose dexamethasone pretreatment the previous night.
Stressful life events are related to the risk of infected individuals developing an illness Cohen et. Traumatic stressful events may trigger either behavioral or biological processes that contribute to the onset of disease.
Chronic stress has been associated with increased reports of illness. Long-term exposure to chronic stress may facilitate the development of illness during exposure to stress Cohen et.
Exposure to chronic stress may results in permanent or at the very least long-term psychological, biological, or behavioral responses that alter the progression of illness Cohen et. In addition, the longer the stress endured, the more likely a person was to become ill. Cohen, Doyle, and Skoner found that psychological stress predicted a greater expression of illness and a greater production of interleukin-6 in response to an upper respiratory infection. Finally, Zarski found no correlation between life experiences and health status.
However, life experiences were significantly correlated with somatic symptoms and energy level. Overall health status was highly correlated with somatic symptoms. Coping Style In addition to stress, coping style is also related to the development of illness. There are several methods of coping. Feeling in Control as a Way of Coping. For example, suppose you are overweight and your doctor tells you that it is because you have a genetic disorder.
You have no control over your situation. This may be very stressful for you. However, suppose now that you are overweight but your doctor tells you that with diet and exercise you can lose the weight. This situation may be less stressful for you because you know that you can do something about your weight.
Just knowing that you can control your weight makes the situation less stressful than if you were unable to control your weight. So, knowing that traffic will be heavy on the freeway at 8: Optimism and Pessimism Coping Style. Some people seem predisposed to believe that they can maintain control over stressful situations.
Approach and Avoidant Coping. What may be stressful for one person may not be stressful for another person. For example, one person may see going to college as a stressful experience.
Psychological Theories of Stress
He may be anxious about living away from home for the first time. He may be worried about making new friends and doing well in school. Another person may see going to college as the beginning of a new, fun adventure.
He may be excited about living away from home for the first time and making new friends. He may confident that he can do very well in school. Both of these people experiences the same event going to collegebut for one person the event was stressful, while for the other it was not stressful.
In other words, when faced with a stressful situation, we need to determine if we have the ability to cope or not. Primary and Secondary Appraisals. There are two types of appraisals, primary and secondary. Both appraisals affect a person's ability to cope and adjust to stressful situations. Chang and Strunk examined the direct and indirect influences of dysphoria expressions of depressive symptoms on primary and secondary appraisals, coping, and psychological and physical adjustment.
Both of these processes put strain on the cardiovascular and immune systems, as both of these systems use the blood to transport oxygen, antibodies, immune cells and nutrients to cells as well as transporting waste and infection away from cells. The psychological impacts of stress also play a role in health outcomes. Increased alcohol and drug misuse has been strongly linked to stress in the research literature. In their study into alcohol use, negative mood and stress, Grzywacz and Almeida found that the probability that a person would engage in binge drinking behaviours was largely increased on days when individuals experienced stress.
Stress also appears to play a large role in the onset of psychosomatic illness, pain and medically unexplained health conditions.
Physiological Impacts of Stress[ edit ] Cardiovascular[ edit ] According to figures released by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, cardiovascular disease was the number one cause of death for both males and females in Australia during ABS, So unsurprisingly, understanding the effects of stress on cardiovascular disease is becoming an important priority for medical science.
The heart can be damaged by chronic stress. The relationship between stress both acute and chronic and CVD is well established, particularly in relation to myocardial infarction. Schnenck-Gustatsson found that stress was one of the most important risk factors in the development of CVD in women.
As well as major life events, such natural disasters or periods of change and uncertainty, personality can influence stress, and it has been investigated in relation to CVD. Given that a large portion of the changes that occur during the stress response are targeted at the components of the cardiovascular system such as the veins and arteries, it is unsurprising that over time, damage can also occur to these components of the cardiovascular system.
One theme that appears from the research literature into CVD and stress is that stress is an independent risk factor given the pressure that the stress response directly puts on the cardiovascular systembut it also exacerbates other risk factors such as diet, smoking, levels of physical activity and weight.
Part One Jayne is a young woman in her early 20's who suffers from chronic stress. She reports feeling stressed about several aspects of her life, including her work-life balance, her university studies as well as conflicts that have occurred between herself and some friends.
Motivation and emotion/Book/2010/Stress and health
Over the past 12 months, she has also noticed that her health has been suffering. Jayne has had a number of illnesses, including some recurring problems. She has had four bouts of gastroenteritis, two ear infections, several bouts of common cold as well as one bout of 'flu and a severe case of whooping cough even though she had received vaccinations for both. She reports being 'constantly sick' and 'lacking energy'.
Jayne feels as though her poor health is exacerbating her stress and is desperate to get her health back under control. Infectious Diseases[ edit ] The situation experienced by the young woman in the case study, Jayne, is not uncommon for people who suffer chronic stress. The suppressed state of the immune system that chronic stress induces has large implications for the management and prevention of infectious diseases. Wound healing and surgical recovery has been shown to be greatly impacted if patients are in stressful environments.
Godbout and Glaser found that wound healing was far slower under stressful conditions and the potential for the wound becoming infected was largely increased. The prevention of infectious diseases can be impaired by presence of chronic stress. When reading the case study, you may have asked yourself 'how it is that Jayne could have caught the flu and whooping cough, given that she had received vaccinations against those two viruses?
Research shows that if Jayne received these inoculations whilst she was suffering chronic stress, they may not have worked.
This finding is consistent with much of the research literature on the role of stress in depression. The genetic predisposition to develop depression also appears to play a role in how individuals react to stressors.