Scotland and norway a special relationship by douglas

Can Scotland remain in the EU after Brexit? | Sionaidh Douglas-Scott | Opinion | The Guardian

scotland and norway a special relationship by douglas

THEY may be the pin-ups for Scottish independence but Norwegians don't know it. Buy A Special Relationship by Douglas Kennedy from Amazon's Fiction Books Store. Everyday low prices on a huge range of new releases and classic fiction. if—as happened with Scotland's independence referendum—a vote to leave looks has a 'special relationship' with the UK, then it can also be said to have a .. 38 Douglas Brinkley, 'Dean Acheson and the “special relationship”: the West Point .. NATO countries such as Norway, Iceland and Turkey, with possible conse-.

Life[ edit ] He was born in Holyrood Abbey. She bore him seven children, six of whom survived into adulthood. Subsequently, the relations between Flanders and Scotland improved. He was popular with the commoners, with whom, like most of the Stewartshe socialised often, in times of peace and war.

His legislation has a markedly popular character. He does not appear to have inherited his father's taste for literature, which was "inherited" by at least two of his sisters; but the foundation of the University of Glasgow during his reign, by Bishop Turnbullshows that he encouraged learning; and there are also traces of his endowments to St.

scotland and norway a special relationship by douglas

Salvator'sthe new college of Archbishop Kennedy at St Andrews. However, his murder of the Earl of Douglas leaves a stain on his reign. The Queen, although hurt, managed to get to her six-year-old son, who was now king. The Parliament of Scotland revoked alienations of crown property and prohibited them, without the consent of the Estates, that is, until James II's eighteenth birthday. After his death, and with a general lack of high-status earls in Scotland due to deaths, forfeiture or youth, political power became shared uneasily among William Crichton, 1st Lord CrichtonLord Chancellor of Scotland sometimes in co-operation with the Earl of Avondaleand Sir Alexander Livingston of Callendarwho had possession of the young king as the warden of the stronghold of Stirling Castle.

Can Scotland remain in the EU after Brexit?

They were released on 4 September only by making a formal agreement to put James in the custody of the Livingstons, by giving up her dowry for his maintenance, and confessing that Livingston had acted through zeal for the king's safety. According to legend, they came, and were entertained at the royal table, where James, still a little boy, was charmed by them. However, they were treacherously hurried to their doom, which took place by beheading in the castle yard of Edinburgh on 24 November, with the year-old king pleading for their lives.

Three days later Malcolm Fleming of Cumbernauldtheir chief adherent, shared the same fate. It is likely the king, being a small child, had nothing to do with this. This infamous incident took the name of "the Black Dinner ". Struggles with the Douglases[ edit ] In James II reached adulthood, but he had to struggle to gain control of his kingdom. And would there be some sort of federal arrangement linking Scotland, Northern Ireland and London in EU participation? Nicola Sturgeon in Brussels to press case for keeping Scotland in EU Read more These are difficult questions, but maybe not insurmountable.

The EU has a history of flexible and variegated participation that does not always involve single states in homogenous EU memberships. And — an interesting precedent for London if a product of very different circumstances — from to West Berlin was a member of the EEC, although not, as such, part of West Germany. So the EU is, and has been, open to variegated, differentiated relationships. But an independent Scotland is also under discussion.

The EU referendum, and the risk that Scotland will be denied EU membership against its will, has brought this option back to the table.

scotland and norway a special relationship by douglas

I make no case for or against the independence of Scotland, but simply examine its potential consequences. If an independence poll takes place and is won, this will lead to the disintegration of the UK. The UK government and Better Together and even some EU officials argued that a newly independent Scotland would have to apply through the standard accession process in the treaty, in the same way that new countries, such as Croatia, have done.

Sometimes these intra-Scottish conflicts in Scandinavia were driven by political developments, but more often by personal circumstance: Thus we learn of one exiled Scot who distanced himself from his compatriots in Stockholm as he believed they strayed from their Calvinist heritage by joining the Swedish Church. Not only that, but he also owned plots in several other Stockholm churches. Given the subsequent statement about Englishmen, and wondering what might constitute something worse than atheism to such an ardent believer, it is possible though not proven that he is referring to Scottish Episcopalians as the atheists.

A Special Relationship: senshido.info: Douglas Kennedy: Books

As Thomson may have believed Episcopalians were the cause of his exile, he would have been aware that they were at least influenced by Calvinism, as stated by Archbishop Archibald Hamilton. This may have raised them above Anglicans to some extent in his estimation. There were, of course, pure atheists to whom Thomson may have been alluding. The English merchants bought their grave on 9 December Leijonancker bought the grave near the altar on 7 June What these examples do show is that by the early modern period, a variety of factors had contributed to the presence in Scandinavia of thousands of Scots, with similar numbers in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and significant numbers in England, Ireland, and the rest of Europe.

As part of that agreement, there was also a military component. In turn, this led to a fresh exodus of Scottish fighting men to Scandinavia. Surprisingly, perhaps, this did not always work out to the advantage of the House of Oldenburg. Military migrations brought literally tens of thousands of Scottish soldiers and sailors to both the Copenhagen and Stockholm administrations, reaching a dangerous climax during the intra-Scandinavian Kalmar War of Those Scots in Danish service mobilized at land and sea, including one noble colonel and two admirals.

As the main Danish ally, King James was expected to further aid his brother-in-law Christian IV with still more troops, and a force of some men were prepared for action.

Scandinavian Scotland - Wikipedia

As the research of Alexia Grosjean has demonstrated, James was playing a dangerous double-game with his brother-in-law, Christian IV. For the more probable figure ofsee Murdoch and Mijers, Thus Robert Anstruther wrote to his step-brother James Spens: Despite the successful conclusion of the Kalmar War which both kept Sweden free and Denmark-Norway in check, there were larger wars looming. It has certainly looked at the impact on the battlefield, but also the effect on devastated communities who lost their men through violent deaths.

scotland and norway a special relationship by douglas

It has looked at the place of the common soldier as well as the officer class, and also to the importance of women as well as men. The 22 Murdoch,consulted online at: Robert Anstruther to James Spens, 18 July In Britain the plight of this Stuart princess and the entry of her uncle Christian IV into the war were frequently woven together by pamphleteers and military recruiters alike. Add into that mix the heady potion of confessional alignment and the role of straightforward finance in attracting soldiers to service is greatly diminished.

Some English and 13, Scots served Denmark-Norway in this war, rallying to the cause of Elizabeth and the reformed religion, albeit there were notable Catholic officers amongst them. As Charles I asserted, this did not detract from his loyalty to the House of Stuart. Scots formed one of the largest single components of the Danish-Norwegian Army.

Scottish officers outnumbered Danish officers by a staggering 3: Charles I eventually gave the Scots the choice of two colours.

scotland and norway a special relationship by douglas

One had a Dannebrog with a Saltire in the corner, the other had a Saltire with a Dannebrog in the corner. The Lions of the North When Sweden entered the coalition against the Habsburgs inthe Danish contingent of Scots joined some 12, Scots already served in her army. By the conclusion of the war it is estimated that the total number that had served reached about 35, Scots.

However a combination of natural wastage, battlefield fatigue, injury and death meant that at any one time numbers were seldom above 10, and usually less. Their importance to Sweden came not just through weight of numbers, but also in the roles they fulfilled within the military hierarchy of the army. Some Scots served as officers, up to a quarter of the entire Swedish total. Moreover, at least 70 of these attained the rank of colonel while a dozen became field marshals or generals in this year period.

Of these, the Scottish role at Breitenfeld in has been long known. Discussion of this event can be found in a recent edition of this journal, alerting us to the significance of this Society in disseminating cutting-edge research in the field.

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Quite often it was reward through positions such as governorships, or other forms advancement in society. See also Monrovol. That being said, the Scottish contribution was well understood by contemporaries. Inwhen the Scottish Covenanters went to war with their half-Danish king, their provisional government sent out envoys to seek support for their cause.

In addition to beginning the process of international recognition for the rebelling Scottish regime, Sweden released officers and men to bolster the Covenanter Army including Field Marshal Alexander Leslie.

They provided him with enough weapons to equip 12, men and finances for many more. This included sufficient artillery for the Covenanter Army — 60 cannon. Moreover, they supplied five Swedish naval warships to transport the above to Scotland.

scotland and norway a special relationship by douglas

However, when speaking of war it is important not to glamorise or over- celebrate what are actually dreadful events in our history.