Rise time - Wikipedia
Historically, oscilloscope frequency response tended to approximately follow the rule: Bandwidth x risetime = This corresponds to a 1- or 2-pole filter roll-off. To find the relationship between the rise time of a signal and its bandwidth, we are going to engineer a specific spectrum so we know exactly. The most frequently asked question is: exactly what is the relationship between the time-domain (rise time) and frequency-domain (bandwidth).
Using synchronization technology, you can create high-channel-count digitizers.
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The picture above shows a system that offers up to 68 channels. Multiple chassis can be synchronized for even higher channel counts.
Synchronization of multiple devices is a key requirement of many applications, which can often add to software development time.
Furthermore, there are a variety of prewritten examples for performing this type of synchronization, which makes getting up and running even easier.
Back to Top 8. Multiple Instrument Synchronization Almost all automated test and many benchtop applications involve multiple types of instruments such as digitizers, signal generators, digital waveform analyzers, digital waveform generators, and switches. The inherent timing and synchronization capability of PXI and NI modular instruments allows you to synchronize all these types of instruments without the need for external cabling.
For instance, you can integrate a digitizer such as the NI PXI and an arbitrary waveform generator such as the NI PXI for performing parameter sweeps, which is useful for characterizing the frequency and phase response of the device under test. The entire sweep can be automated, which obviates the need for manual setting of parameters on the scope and generator followed by offline analysis.
A modular approach with PXI results in orders of magnitude improvement in speed and improves your efficiency by letting you focus on the results rather than the cumbersome steps needed to get those results.
Top 10 Things to Consider When Selecting a Digitizer/Oscilloscope
Back to Top 9. Mixed Signal Capability The same T-Clk technology that enables creating systems with up to synchronized channels in a single PXI chassis or up to channels using multiple chassis as described in the section above also allows for synchronization of instruments of different types.Duty cycle, frequency and pulse width--an explanation
For instance, an NI digitizer can be T-Clk synchronized with signal generators, digital waveform generators, and digital waveform analyzers for building mixed signal systems. The VI above demonstrates an application that has been configured for mixed signal oscilloscope analog and digital input functionality.
In addition, digital or analog output functionality could be added to the application and all instruments could still be synchronized. Back to Top Software, Analysis Capability, and Customizability Determining software and analysis capabilities is very important when choosing a modular digitizer or a stand-alone oscilloscope for your application, and this factor may help you choose between the two instruments.
Stand-alone oscilloscopes are vendor-defined while digitizers are user-defined and flexible in the applications they can solve. A boxed oscilloscope provides many of the standard functions that are common to the needs of many engineers. As you can imagine, these standard functions will not solve every application, especially for automated test applications.
If you need to define the measurements your oscilloscope makes, you might select a modular digitizer, which leverages the PC architecture while letting you customize an application to your requirements, instead of the fixed functionality of a stand-alone oscilloscope. This driver comes with more than 50 prewritten example programs that highlight the full functionality of any NI digitizer, and the included NI-SCOPE Soft Front Panel provides a familiar interface similar to an oscilloscope.
Take the Next Step Although modular digitizers and stand-alone oscilloscopes are both used to acquire voltages, the instruments offer different benefits. However, the considerations discussed above are important when purchasing either instrument. More on Bandwidth vs. Rise Time Figure 1: In particular, we'd covered the relationship between bandwidth and rise time and why we have this rule of thumb that says that bandwidth can be estimated using 0.
Top 10 Things to Consider When Selecting a Digitizer/Oscilloscope - National Instruments
At left in Figure 1 is a near-ideal square wave in the time domain, while at right is the same square wave in the frequency domain. A longer rise time means decreased bandwidth If we take that same waveform but increase the rise time, we will have also decreased the bandwidth.
And as Figure 2 shows, the first harmonic is of about the same amplitude as in Figure 1 but subsequent harmonics fall off at a much faster rate. So we can clearly see that with a longer rise time, we get less bandwidth because there are fewer high-frequency components of significance in the waveform.
With a distorted waveform, all bets are off What happens if we take the initial waveform and add some distortion in the form of ringing Figure 3? All bets are off, because it's no longer an ideal, or even close to ideal, square wave.
The spectrum shows high-frequency peaking at the 7th harmonic and beyond, with many harmonics having amplitudes greater than that of the ideal square wave. The wavelength of 50 MHz is 6 meters in free space.
You didn't say what impedence your transmission line is, but let's figure propagation will be half the speed of light, which leaves 3 meter wavelength on the wire. So if the wire is a foot or less in length, then you can add a simple R-C filter at 50 MHz and forget about it. Transmission line effects don't just suddenly appear at some magic wavelength relative to the wire length, so how long is too long is a gray area.
Test Happens - Teledyne LeCroy Blog: Transmission Lines (Part II): More on Bandwidth vs. Rise Time
If it is "long", then the best thing is to use a impedence controlled driver and a terminator at the other end. However, that is cumbersome and also attenuates the signal by half.
You either deal with the lower amplitude at the receiver, or boost it at the transmitter before it gets divided by the driving impedence and the transmission line characteristic impedence. A simpler solution that may take some experimental tweaking, is to simply put a small resistor in series with the driver and be done with it. That will form a low pass filter with the capacitance of the cable and whatever other stray capacitance is around.
It's not as predictable as a deliberate R-C, but much simpler and often good enough.