Relationship between density and refractive index of inorganic solids - IOPscience
How does density affect the refractive index of a liquid? For any particular material the relation between density and refractive index is very. Relation between the refractive index and the density of silicate and borosilicate glasses. In general, the refractive index of a glass. The inter-dependence between refractive index and density of inorganic solids has been investigated. It is found that the available experimental data on.
Aerogel is a very low density solid that can be produced with refractive index in the range from 1. Most plastics have refractive indices in the range from 1. Moreover, topological insulator material are transparent when they have nanoscale thickness.
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These excellent properties make them a type of significant materials for infrared optics. The refractive index measures the phase velocity of light, which does not carry information.
This can occur close to resonance frequenciesfor absorbing media, in plasmasand for X-rays. In the X-ray regime the refractive indices are lower than but very close to 1 exceptions close to some resonance frequencies.Refractive Index
Since the refractive index of the ionosphere a plasmais less than unity, electromagnetic waves propagating through the plasma are bent "away from the normal" see Geometric optics allowing the radio wave to be refracted back toward earth, thus enabling long-distance radio communications.
See also Radio Propagation and Skywave. Negative index metamaterials A split-ring resonator array arranged to produce a negative index of refraction for microwaves Recent research has also demonstrated the existence of materials with a negative refractive index, which can occur if permittivity and permeability have simultaneous negative values.
The resulting negative refraction i.
Ewald—Oseen extinction theorem At the atomic scale, an electromagnetic wave's phase velocity is slowed in a material because the electric field creates a disturbance in the charges of each atom primarily the electrons proportional to the electric susceptibility of the medium.
Similarly, the magnetic field creates a disturbance proportional to the magnetic susceptibility. As the electromagnetic fields oscillate in the wave, the charges in the material will be "shaken" back and forth at the same frequency. The light wave traveling in the medium is the macroscopic superposition sum of all such contributions in the material: This wave is typically a wave with the same frequency but shorter wavelength than the original, leading to a slowing of the wave's phase velocity.
Most of the radiation from oscillating material charges will modify the incoming wave, changing its velocity. However, some net energy will be radiated in other directions or even at other frequencies see scattering.
- Relationship between density and refractive index of inorganic solids
- Refractive index
- How is density related to refractive index?
Depending on the relative phase of the original driving wave and the waves radiated by the charge motion, there are several possibilities: This is the normal refraction of transparent materials like glass or water, and corresponds to a refractive index which is real and greater than 1.
The refraction occurs at the boundary and is caused by a change in the speed of the light wave upon crossing the boundary.
Refractive index - Wikipedia
The tendency of a ray of light to bend one direction or another is dependent upon whether the light wave speeds up or slows down upon crossing the boundary. Because a major focus of our study will be upon the direction of bending, it will be important to understand the factors that affect the speed at which a light wave is transported through a medium.
Light Propagation Through a Medium The mechanism by which a light wave is transported through a medium occurs in a manner that is similar to the way that any other wave is transported - by particle-to-particle interaction. In Unit 10 of The Physics Classroom Tutorialthe particle-to-particle interaction mechanism by which a mechanical wave transports energy was discussed in detail.
Optical Density and Light Speed
In Unit 12 of The Physics Classroom Tutorialthe mechanism of energy transport by an electromagnetic wave was briefly discussed. Here we will look at this method in more detail. An electromagnetic wave i. This value is the speed of light in a vacuum.
When the wave impinges upon a particle of matter, the energy is absorbed and sets electrons within the atoms into vibrational motion. If the frequency of the electromagnetic wave does not match the resonant frequency of vibration of the electronthen the energy is reemitted in the form of an electromagnetic wave. This new electromagnetic wave has the same frequency as the original wave and it too will travel at a speed of c through the empty space between atoms. The newly emitted light wave continues to move through the interatomic space until it impinges upon a neighboring particle.
The energy is absorbed by this new particle and sets the electrons of its atoms into vibration motion. And once more, if there is no match between the frequency of the electromagnetic wave and the resonant frequency of the electron, the energy is reemitted in the form of a new electromagnetic wave. The cycle of absorption and reemission continues as the energy is transported from particle to particle through the bulk of a medium.