occupational therapy, the science of occupation and the regional ideology of a ally originated from other disciplines such as sociology, psychology or medi- cine . This information . depends on the society's ideology and the historical period. The edition comes at an important time in the history of occupational therapy in theory developments in sociology and social science and our own discipline and In addressing the relationship between privilege and occupational justice. Article (PDF Available) in British Journal of Occupational Therapy 74(2) · January with 1, Reads sociology to identify different conceptualisations of time and their mani-. festations The past: a historical perspective on time.
The difference between these disciplines and our own discipline and profession however, is that we may not even have our own theories to begin with. It seems prudent and an urgent necessity for occupational science and occupational therapy therefore, to invest in theorising about human occupation as an act of discovery, even as some concepts would be borrowed from other disciplines.
Theorising, in the context of discovery as described by Swedberg6 with reference to sociology and social science, is made up of 1 observation, 2 the naming or formulation of the central concept, 3 the building out of the theory and lastly, 4 the formulation of a tentative theory, including the explanation6.
This process may be a useful one to consider in theorising about human occupation. Notwithstanding the on-going global debate about the legitimate place within which to theorise about human occupation, a critical concern regards the extent to which occupational constructs or concepts as well as theory inform and advance occupational therapy research, practice and curricula.
This special edition recognises that much work has been accomplished locally and internationally in growing occupational science as a distinct interdisciplinary and scientific body of knowledge, as well as in expanding occupational therapy practice models and conceptual frameworks. Critical studies of human occupation have also emerged from South America in particular, noting other sources alongside scientific knowledge, as credible sites of learning and knowing about human occupation.
This rich conceptual foundation has served to expand occupational therapy practice, beyond the traditional confines of clinical settings, to embrace the social practice of occupational therapy where individuals live, learn, work and play. Research in occupational therapy has also grown to embrace emerging occupational science constructs, with critical questions regarding our impact on society, and honest interrogation concerning our everyday professional practice and education.
Reflecting on the historical conditions that shape occupational therapy as an institution in South America and Africa, Guajardo, Kronenberg and Ramugondo argue for professional identities, epistemologies and practices that position occupational therapy within social transformation9. Their call for southern theorising is substantiated by the need for critical professional engagement with those groups and identities that are excluded through the hegemonic conception of society Using the American Civil Rights Movement and the South African Struggle against Apartheid as the context of discovery, Frank and Murithi demonstrate occupational science theorising about the occupational dimensions of social transformation They describe a system of interconnected ideas to arrive at a theory of occupational reconstructions that seeks to explain what people do to remake ordinary life in response to a problematic social situation.
Kronenberg, Kathard, Laliberte Rudman and Ramugondo use post-apartheid South Africa as an exemplar of a society in crisis They propose and theorise a process through which pervasive dehumanisation dynamics can be defeated on a day-to-day basis through human occupation and suggest that compliance with the unique philosophical attributes of the African continent will enable occupational therapists and occupational scientists to generate practical knowledge that will enable society to humanise and heal itself.
Laliberte Rudman draws attention to social-political relations of power when theorising socially transformative practice She explores how power operates through ageism in ways that shape what people come to take for granted regarding occupation in relation to age.
Drawing on the stories of three marginalised women who abuse alcohol during pregnancy, Cloete and Ramugondo provide evidence for theorising the ways in which structural entrenchment, as a feature of inter-generational poverty, may lead to imposed occupations They point to the need for theorising that takes account of the historical, cultural, economic and political conditions that perpetuate occupational inequities.
In addressing the relationship between privilege and occupational justice, Galvaan, Peters, Smith, Brittain, Menegaldo, Rautenbach and Wilson-Poe illustrate the power of understanding lived narratives in theory building They explain how relational power in occupational engagement contributes to privileges and opportunities for some, which may create conditions contributing to occupational injustice.
Ikiugu, Hoyme, Muller and Reinke problematise the assumptions held about 'meaningful occupation' as a therapeutic catalyst for health and well-being They make a distinction between meaningful and psychologically rewarding occupations and propose that both types of occupations are necessary to optimise the benefits of occupational therapy. Gretschel, Ramugondo and Galvaan introduce cultural historical activity theory CHAT as a lens for understanding the design of interventions as an occupation of occupational therapists They demonstrate how CHAT allows for the discovery and analysis of the potential enablers and barriers to innovative, relevant and critically considered occupational therapy interventions in the South African context.
This special edition concludes with two articles that focus on human occupation in the curriculum.
Aldridge introduces a northern perspective on the use of technology supported pedagogical platforms to facilitate undergraduate students' understanding of human occupation She describes an occupational science course that used synchronous online interactions and reflective opportunities between United States and Swedish students to enable experiential learning about occupation from a local and global perspective. Green, Hudson, Wicht, Willows and Buchanan describe the impact of two modules on first year occupational therapy students' knowledge and attitudes to the core constructs of occupation They illustrate the value of using an existing conceptual model to ground undergraduate learning of the relationships between occupation, the person and the environment and to recognise the influences these may have on occupational performance.
occupational therapy | Definition, Education, & Applied Occupational Therapy | senshido.info
The purpose of this special edition is to pave the way for intensified theorising about human occupation and occupation centered practice in anticipation of the WFOT congress in Cape Town. It turns our attention to the needs of people in the majority world as they pursue the lives they have reason to value1. The articles illustrate the intrinsic complexity of human occupation and the growing commitment of occupational therapists and occupational scientists to advance its connection with fairness and justice in the world.
Theorising human occupation can contribute to human development by providing theories to guide how we engage in occupational therapy practices that promote lives that people have reason to value. Human Development Report The rise of the South: Human progress in a diverse world. New York, United States of America: United Nations Development Programme, Academic innovation in the service of occupational therapy's future.
What is Occupational Science?
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, ; 45 4: An introduction to occupational science: A foundation for occupational therapy in the 21st century. These theories focus on the complex relationships between the motivations and skills of patients, the occupations that bring meaning to their lives, and the environments in which they live. Occupational science was developed to support the study of occupation and its complexity in everyday life.
As a result, research in occupational therapy has grown substantially and has played an important role in providing scientific evidence to support many occupational therapy interventions. Modern occupational therapy Occupational therapists work with individuals of all ages and with various organizations, including companies and governments.
The practice of occupational therapy focuses on maintenance of health, prevention of disability, and improvement of participation in occupations after illness, accident, or disability.
Thus, therapists typically work with persons who have physical challenges in occupations because of illness, injury, or disability.
USC Chan Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy
They also work with persons who are at risk for decreased participation in their occupations. For example, programs for older adults that adapt their living environments to minimize the risk for a fall help them to continue to live in the community.
Establishing therapist-patient partnerships is an important part of a successful therapy program. Initial assessments enable patients to identify the occupations that are most meaningful to them but that they have difficulty performing. Modern occupational therapy also focuses on the analysis, adaptationand use of daily occupations to enable persons to live fully within their community.
Occupational therapists are trained to analyze these activities and tasks to determine what skills and abilities are required to complete them. If a person has difficulty engaging fully in day-to-day occupations, a therapist works with that person to assess why he or she cannot perform the specific activities and tasks that make up an occupation.
Factors within the activity, the person, and the environment are examined to determine reasons for difficulties in performance. The occupational therapist and the person then develop a plan to improve performance through active participation in the occupation.
Examples of applied occupational therapy The approaches that occupational therapists use to maintain and improve participation in the daily activities and tasks of patients can be illustrated by specific cases. The following examples explore several different situations that may be encountered by therapists.
In the first example, a young child who has cerebral palsy has difficulty learning to dress himself because of limitations in movement and coordination. With his parents, an occupational therapist plans a program to teach the most efficient methods for dressing.
Changes to clothing, such as the addition of velcro closures or elastic shoelaces, may be used to adapt the activity. Methods of practice are taught to the parents. Specific activities are practiced throughout his day to help him improve his motor skills.
In a second example, an older adult who had a mild stroke is experiencing depression and is uncertain whether she can continue to live in her apartment. As she participates in these activities, she gains confidence and improves her ability to live independently. In a third example, after a motor vehicle accident, a year-old woman is unable to return to work as an administrative assistant because of a neck injury. The therapist also creates a paced return-to-work schedule, allowing the woman to improve her endurance gradually in order to achieve a successful return to her workplace.