Modeling Corporate Citizenship and Its Relationship with Organizational. Citizenship Behaviors. Chieh-Peng Lin. Nyan-Myau Lyau. Yuan-Hui Tsai. Wen- Yung. A framework is provided that integrates organizational psychology and CSR, with the purpose of highlighting synergies in order to advance scholarship and. employee citizenship behavior: The sensitizing role of task significance. . test the model in three field surveys of working individuals employed across a . They display a more positive relationship between their organization's CSR and their.
The results showed that employee engagement fully mediated the relationship in a significant way. The results of the current study have many managerial implications for mobile telecommunication companies. In order to achieve better results and higher profit margins organizations are adopting various emerging business tools and management philosophies .
Some of these include corporate social responsibility and the engagement of employees. According to companies are facing great pressure from stakeholders to become more socially and environmentally responsible and are also pressured to focus on developing a better understanding of how engaged employees affect business outcomes such as productivity and profitability.
Over the years corporate social responsibility has become an important issue for corporations worldwide . Furthermore,  stated that the interest in corporate social responsibility also stems from the fact that corporate social responsibility builds strong employee bonds with corporations and achieves better employee and organizational performance. Corporate social responsibility may lead to greater gain not only for society but also for organizations as it leads to higher employee engagement .
This is supported by  who stated that employees and job applicants are seeking out companies that demonstrate a commitment to corporate social responsibility as these firms provide the opportunity to engage employees, attract new talent, retain customers, and enhance the company brand. Moreover, according to since organizations nowadays are focusing on the notion of the triple bottom line i.
Therefore, it has been noted that corporate social responsibility holds the key to the success of organizations. This is because there is more to it than meets the eye since it can be used to address the needs of various stakeholders and at the same time address employee engagement challenges .
Modeling Corporate Citizenship and Its Relationship with Organizational Citizenship Behaviors
Organizations are trying to more sensitive with regard to their performance by focusing on employee performance. In this respect organizations are looking for people who will go beyond their defined career duties, develop cooperation, and help colleagues, employers, and customers . Here engagement is considered a vital issue for companies who view their workforce as their greatest asset .
However leaders are aware of the many challenges that affect the engagement of their employees. But organizations that are able to overcome these challenges have enormous opportunities open to them especially in terms of business performance . Indeed, disengaged employees may adversely affect productivity and revenues  .
As a result, it is important for organizations to create a culture and atmosphere that facilitate employee engagement and adopt different practices that enable them to maintain this engagement in order to ensure superior organizational performance . After a thorough review of the literature it is clear that the relationship between corporate social responsibility, employee engagement, and organizational performance need further research and understanding particularly in developing countries like Jordan.
Regarding the relationship between corporate social responsibility and employee engagement,  stated that most research in the field of corporate social responsibility focused on external stakeholders and outcomes rather than focusing on how corporate social responsibility relates to internal stakeholders such as employees and the subsequent effect on of this relationship on performance.
Regarding the relationship between employee engagement and organizational performance it is requested that this relationship be further investigated in terms of both qualitative and quantitative research methods . The relationship between corporate social responsibility and organizational performance requires further examination as it has been reported that this relationship suffers from two limitations. First, extant research on this relationship focused only on western developed countries.
Second, there is no consensus between scholars whether corporate social responsibility has a positive, negative, or neutral effect on organizational performance . Therefore it is clear that there is a lack of literature regarding the relationship between corporate social responsibility, employee engagement, and organizational performance and as a result this researched is thus administered to answer the following question: Is there a relationship between corporate social responsibility, employee engagement, and organizational performance in the Jordanian context?
Corporate Social Responsibility CSR Since the s much attention has been focused on the concepts of corporate social performance and corporate social responsibility, and it still continues to be a concept of interest today . Academics and business managers have noticed how corporate social responsibility was an irrelevant and doubtful idea and how it has become a crucial topic on research agendas .
Organizations have come to terms that adopting a socially responsible view of its activities are of vital importance. This realization is due to the fact that organizations are faced with various social, economic, legal, ethical, and environmental challenges that affect their behaviour, and focusing solely on economic management to achieve objectives is no longer feasible . Furthermore, organizations are pressured by a range of stakeholders such as communities, regulators, non- governmental organizations, activists, socially responsible investors, etc.
According to organizations engage in corporate social responsibility for a number of reasons which help to improve their overall financial portfolio. These reasons include following government regulations, improving public image, providing transparency for investors, and improving economic performance.
Corporate social responsibility can be traced on a continuum. At one end of the continuum it reflects the philanthropic activities that contribute to social and environmental requests received by the company or gaps identified by top management.
At the other extreme it reflects a set of practices created in response to demands placed on society and the activities of the organization by various dynamic forces . Corporate social responsibility can be defined as an ongoing commitment made by organizations to act in an ethical manner and enhance economic development while improving the quality of life of employees and their families, local community, and society as a whole   .
The idea behind corporate social responsibility is that organizations should try to achieve a balance between profits achieved and expenses made by maximizing the positive influence and minimising the negative effects in achieving the contribution for society .
Socially responsible firms are economically competitive organizations that try to fulfil required tasks in order to assure their survival and existence. Socially responsible firms should also compete for stakeholder goodwill and try to differentiate themselves from competitors by combining business opportunities and social welfare . However, corporations will not act responsibly as long as corporate responsibility issues are not integrated in their decision making and governance structures. Organization can engage in many types of corporate social responsible behaviours such as being employee friendly, investor friendly, environmentally friendly, mindful of ethics, respectful of communities, supporting the arts, universities and other causes .
Being able to engage in socially responsible activities benefits organizations in many ways, for example it strengthens relationships with different stakeholders by minimizing conflicts with stakeholders and maximizing loyalty from all stakeholders . It can also help in building and sustaining of corporate reputation, the reduction of organizational cost through the enhancement of positive social effects and elimination of negative ones, the alignment of corporate and social values which in turn may lead to the identification of new opportunities, and positive performance outcomes .
Several approaches have been used to measure corporate social responsibility. Other scholars suggested using CSR practices and grouping them into internal and external social roles see    which will be the basis of measurement for this study.
Internal CSR Internal corporate social responsibility is related to all the internal operations of the company . This focus on employees is due to the fact that they are considered very important internal stakeholders to the organization . External CSR External corporate social responsibility refers to corporate socially responsible actions directed outside the boundaries of the organization .
According to external CSR activities relate to external stakeholders such as customers, business partners, and local communities. With regards to customers, socially responsible companies are required to provide products or services in an efficient, ethical, and environmentally friendly manner. Here customers not only look for quality products and services that comply with social responsible criteria but also for quality relationship with organizations that provide these products and services where they are able to provide proposals, complaints, and suggestions without any problem .
Regarding business partners, socially responsible companies are required to be good partners to their business partners and controlling labour standards in compliance with legal requirements and having in place complaints procedure for their suppliers and other business partners  . Regarding local communities, socially responsible companies are required to take philanthropic initiatives such as sponsorship activities.
In addition organizations are considered socially responsible if they make infrastructure investments launch community development activities, encourage their employees to participate in community projects and provide financial support to social and other non-commercial community projects .
These initiatives and activities add value for both the company and community. Therefore, employee engagement has become a top priority for organizations as a highly engaged workforce can increase innovation, productivity, and bottom line performance while reducing costs of hiring and retaining talented employees .
Employee engagement does not have a single generally accepted definition that can be used as a common reference. Several scholars have provided many but somewhat similar definitions of the concept employee engagement. Engagement was first entered in the academic glossary by  who proposed that personal engagement occurs when people bring in or leave out their selves when performing their work roles. Here engaged employees are familiar with the business context and work with colleagues to benefit the organization.
Modeling Corporate Citizenship and Its Relationship with Organizational Citizenship Behaviors
According to employee engagement is a construct that captures the differences between individuals and the amount of energy and dedication they provide to their jobs. Organizations should strive to have an engaged workforce since employers want employees who do their best to help their company succeed and employees want a good job that is challenging and meaningful. The only to achieve this win-win situation is through engagement  . Furthermore, in order to develop and nurture engagement, a two-way relationship between employers and employees is required .
According to them organizations who do this are bound to succeed. Engaged employees have many qualities such as wise self-starters, believe in supporting the organization, motivate co-workers, work with passion, have high energy level, enthusiastic, and often involve themselves deeply in their jobs.
Because of these qualities, engaged employees are expected to work better and smarter and thus lead to increased individual and organizational performance and provide a foundation for sustainability  . Many factors have been reported to facilitate or impede employee engagement.
For example the  stated that recognition given to high performers, clear understanding of how jobs contribute to strategy, company-wide communication of goals, individual goals aligned with corporate goals, among others are considered important drivers of employee engagement. According to there are several key drivers of employee engagement that help create a road map for achieving organizational excellence.
There is a lack of study in the literature which examines the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and employee perceptions of corporate social responsibility so this research IJIB Vol. July 40 International Journal of Innovations in Business has importance both in theoretical and empirical results by also connecting different disciplines. In this research, two scales are used to investigate the relationship between corporate social responsibility CSR and organizational citizenship behavior OCB.
Demographic variables also had been included to these scales and the questionnaires were sent to the employees. Data gained from the questionnaire are analyzed with related statistical analysis.
According to Carroll, four kinds of social responsibilities constitute total CSR as economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic. These four categories or components of CSR might be depicted as a pyramid. The total corporate social responsibility of business entails the simultaneous fulfillment of the firm's economic, legal, IJIB Vol.
July 41 International Journal of Innovations in Business ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities. Stated in more pragmatic and managerial terms, the CSR firm should strive to make a profit, obey the law, be ethical, and be a good corporate citizen. Numerous contributions argued theoretical frameworks and taxonomies of CSR practices but there is a lack of study in the literature which examines the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and employee perceptions of corporate social responsibility.
This paper aims to fill this gap both with theoretical and empirical results. Corporate Social Responsibility CSR Corporate social responsibility CSR is increasingly viewed as an important aspect of firm-level strategy due to evolving demands and pressures from various stakeholder groups Jones, The concept of corporate social responsibility CSR has a long and varied history.
But formal writing on CRS is a largely product of the 20th century, especially in the past 50 years. The development of the concept of corporate social responsibility has been carried out mainly in the North, from the s when literature focused on responsibility of businessman, to the s when the stakeholder theory took ground and to the s when more studies on the linkage between CSR and corporate financial performance was developed Gugler and Shi, The term CSR has indeed been defined in various ways from the narrow economic perspective of increasing shareholder wealth Friedman,to economic, legal, ethical and discretionary strands of responsibility Carroll, to good corporate citizenship Hemphill, These variations stem in part from differing fundamental assumptions about what CSR entails, varying from conceptions of minimal legal and economic obligations and accountability to stockholders to broader responsibilities to the wider Jamali, Corporate social responsibility consists in the companies themselves defining, unilaterally and voluntarily, social and environmental IJIB Vol.
July 42 International Journal of Innovations in Business policies by means of alternative instruments that are neither collective agreements nor legislation, and offering, in pursuit of these aims, partnerships to multiple actors Fonteneau, For CSR to be accepted by a business person, it should be framed in such a way that the entire range of business responsibilities is embraced.
It is suggested by Carroll that four kinds of social responsibilities constitute total CSR as economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic. Furthermore, these four categories or components of CSR might be depicted as a pyramid. It is the foundation upon which all others rest and it indicates to be profitable.
At the same time, business is expected to obey the law because the law is society's codification of acceptable and unacceptable behavior. Next is business' responsibility to be ethical. At its most fundamental level, this is the obligation to do what is right, just, and fair, and to avoid or minimize harm to stakeholders employees, consumers, the environment, and others.
Finally, business is expected to be a good corporate citizen. This is captured in the philanthropic responsibility, wherein business is expected to contribute financial and human resources to the community and to improve the quality of life Carroll, Stated in more pragmatic and managerial terms, Carroll summarized the CSR firm should strive to make a profit, obey the law, be ethical and be a good corporate citizen.
Organizational Citizenship Behavior OCB Organizational citizenship behavior is a personal and volunteer behavior that is not mentioned directly in official rewards system of an organization.
However, it contributes to effectiveness and efficiency in an organization Salavati et. Successful organizations need employees who will do more than their usual job duties and provide performance that is beyond expectations. Organizational citizenship behaviors OCB describe actions in which employees are willing to go above and beyond their prescribed role requirements Ahmadi, In-role behaviors involve with those who do the least possible to maintain membership while extra-role behaviors involve those who go beyond general expectations to promote the effective operation of the organization or to benefit others in the organization Lin et.
OCB is defined as those extra work-related behaviors which go above and beyond the routine duties prescribed by their job descriptions or measured in formal evaluations.
Examples of these efforts include cooperation with peers, performing extra duties without complaint, punctuality, volunteering and helping others, using time efficiently, conserving resource, sharing ideas and positively representing the organization Ahmadi, Organ classified various dimensions of OCB as follows: A recent global survey of 1, corporate executives suggests CEOs perceived that businesses benefit from CSR because it increases attractiveness to potential and existing employees Economist, A French poll on CSR indicated that employees were seen as the most important stakeholder group toward whom corporations have to exercise their social responsibility.
Although some studies of CSR adopted an organizational behavior perspective, they mainly focused on how CSR impacted prospective employees, and increased corporate attractiveness Gond et. Branco and Rodrigues stated that CSR has a positive impact on employee motivation, morale, commitment and loyalty.
Employees are important stakeholders who create demand for CSR. One way an organization can respond to these demands is to create an employee volunteerism program, which refers to any program or system intended to encourage employees to perform community service.
July 46 International Journal of Innovations in Business may also experience higher levels of organizational pride if they believe that outsiders view the company more favorably as a result of its volunteerism program.
From all the researches that have been made in the related literature, it is possible to say that CSR activities of organizations can have positive impact on OCB of employees. Research Methodology and Results The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors of employees and their perceptions on corporate social responsibility activities.
Also it is aimed to determine the ways that can be developed for the relationship between OCB of employees and their perceptions of CSR activities.
Another aim of the study is to determine the difference between CSR perceptions according demographic variables such as gender, age and education. The study is important to reveal the linkage between CSR activities of organizations and the way how they affect OCB of employees. By that way, it will be possible to explain the importance of CSR activities and the impact of these activities on OCB of employees.
July 47 International Journal of Innovations in Business activities.