Scientific literature comprises scholarly publications that report original empirical and . Similarly, the results of the investigation, in a section usually called " Results", data should be presented in tabular or graphic form (image, chart, schematic. Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination. a loose relationship to the primary studies and secondary literature reviews. .. How have they used non-textual elements [e.g., charts, graphs, figures, etc.]. Using Graphic Organizers in Literature-Based Science Instruction a well- organized format and graphics such as photographs, charts, maps, tables, and so on.
I am interested in links, parallels and influences between literature and science in the early twentieth century. Periodicals scheduled for inclusion in this project are as follows: This project explores the idea that reading can heal and function therapeutically.
People | Literature and Science, Oxford
The project explores the ways in which religious and poetic texts manipulate the passions and powers of the soul to achieve such a state. It examines the interaction of medieval medical knowledge, theological speculation, and the psychology of poetic response.
The project hopes to explore the significance of the history of reading for the field of medical humanities.
Dr Tiziana Morosetti English Faculty: The relation between the literature and science has informed both my current and previous research.
I am interested in the implications of new and ongoing neuroscientific findings for the study of literature. Specifically, I work on the interface between cognitive neuroscience and modernist ideas of mind in the areas of perception, unconscious memory primingemotion and metacognition. I am also interested in epistemological issues that emerge when literary knowledge about consciousness is translated into materialist scientific theories, and vice versa. Literature, Science and the Humanities: I am currently writing a book called Modernism and the Mind.
Dr William Poole New College: My research lies in early-modern literary, intellectual, and scientific history, and in the application of bibliography of these interests. I am currently interested in the history of collections and of sinology in the period, and I am also editing the correspondences of the antiquary John Aubrey, and the experimental philosopher Robert Hooke. My current research in the area of the Medical Humanities includes work on the idea and representation of abortion in twentieth century literature and medical journals, and a study of the treatment of deafness in nineteenth-century writing.
I am also interested in the ways in which reading literature may illuminate the day-to-day aspects of medicine as it is practised — and vice versa. This study opens up the amoebic, reptilian, fishy and avian metaphors running through the magazine, and argues for a conception of modernism that might accommodate the awkwardly romantic, holistic, and otherwise non-modernist ideas about the artwork that these animal texts demand. My next major project turns to the biological discourses contemporary to the period traditionally thought of as producing literary modernism.
To an historian of science, this period is known as the Eclipse of Darwinism — I have a general interest in literature and science as well as a specific one in the relationship between theatre and science.
Using Graphs and Visual Data in Science | Process of Science | Visionlearning
My current research project explores the ways in which theatre has engaged with evolutionary ideas since the s. I welcome inquiries from potential doctoral students wishing to work in any aspect of literature and science in the period present as well as those interested specifically in the relationship between theatre and science. I work primarily on the intersections of literature, science and medicine in the nineteenth century. Child Development in Literature, Science and Medicine, I have co-edited various collections including Nature Transfigured: For example, the graph in Figure 3 presents mean measurements of mercury emissions from soil at various times over the course of a single day.
The error bars on each vertical bar provide the standard deviation of each measurement. These error bars are included to demonstrate that the change in emissions with time are greater than the inherent variability within each measurement see our Statistics in Science module for more information.
Using Graphs and Visual Data in Science
Error bars within this graphical display of data are used to demonstrate that the change in measurement value red bars with time is greater than the inherent variability within the data shown as black error bars. Adapted from Carpi et al. Graphical displays of data can also be used not just to display error, but to quantify error and uncertainty in a system.
For example, Figure 4 shows a gas chromatograph of a fuel oil spill. Peaks in the chromatograph the blue line provide information about the chemicals identified in the spill, and the peak size can provide an estimate of the relative concentration of that specific chemical in the spill.
However, before this information can be extracted from the graph, instrument error and uncertainty must be calculated the red line and subtracted from the peak area. As you can see in Figure 4, instrument variability decreases as you move from left to right in the graph, and in this case, the graphical display of the error is therefore critical to accurate analysis of the data. Graphical displays of data can be used to estimate system error and uncertainty red line as well as present this uncertainty.
- Scientific literature
Some have tried to point out errors with the now widely accepted notion of climate change by using misleading graphics. Figure 5, below, is one such graphic that has appeared in print.
The point drawn by the creator of this is that the bottom graph, which shows relatively little change in temperature over the past 1, years, disputes the top graph used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change that shows a recent, rapid temperature increase.
Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: 5. The Literature Review
Poor use of graphical displays can confuse and obscure data. At first glance the bottom graph does seem to contradict the top graph. However, looking more closely you realize: The two graphs actually represent completely different datasets.
The top graph is a representation of change in annual mean global temperature normalized to a year period,whereas the bottom graph represents average temperatures in Europe compared to an average over the 20th-century. In addition, the y-axes of the two graphs are displayed on differing scales — the bottom graph has more space between the 0.
Both of these techniques tend to exaggerate the variability in the lower graph. However, the primary reason for the difference in the graphs is not actually shown in the graphs. The author of the graphic created the image on the bottom using different calculations that did not take into account all of the variables that climate scientists used to create the top graph. In other words, the graphs simply do not show the same data. These are common techniques used to distort visual forms of data — manipulating axes, changing one of the variables in a comparison, changing calculations without full explanation — that can obscure a true comparison.
Visualizing spatial and three-dimensional data There are other kinds of visual data aside from graphs. You might think of a topographic map or a satellite image as a picture or a sketch of the surface of the earth, but both of these images are ways of visualizing spatial data. A topographic map shows data collected on elevation and the location of geographic features like lakes or mountain peaks see Figure 6. These data may have been collected in the field by surveyors or by looking at aerial photographs, but nonetheless the map is not a picture of a region — it is a visual representation of data.
The topographic map in Figure 6 is actually accomplishing a second goal beyond simply visualizing data: It is taking three-dimensional data variations in land elevation and displaying them in two dimensions on a flat piece of paper. Solid brown lines are elevation contours. This image takes 3-dimensional data on elevation and depicts it in two dimensions. Likewise, satellite images are commonly misunderstood to be photographs of the Earth from space, but in reality they are much more complex than that.
A satellite records numerical data for each pixel, and it does so at certain predefined wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum see our Light II: Electromagnetism module for more information. In other words, the image itself is a visualization of data that has been processed from the raw data received from the satellite. For example, the Landsat satellites record data in seven different wavelengths: The composite image of four of those wavelengths is displayed in the image of a portion of the Colorado Rocky Mountains shown in Figure 7.
The large red region in the lower portion of the image is not red vegetation in the mountains; instead, it is a region with high values for emission of infrared or thermal wavelengths.
In fact, this region was the site of a large forest fire, known as the Hayman Fire, a month prior to the acquisition of the satellite image in July July Landsat satellite image of the Hayman Fire, central Colorado. They are visual representations of data. They are photographs of a place. Working with image-based data The advent of satellite imagery vastly expanded one data collection method: For example, from a series of satellite images of the Hayman Fire acquired while it was burning, scientists and forest managers were able to extract data about the extent of the fire which burned deep into National Forest land where it could not be monitored by people on the groundthe rate of spread, and the temperature at which it was burning.
By comparing two satellite images, they could find the area that had burned over the course of a day, a week, or a month. Thus, although the images themselves consist of numerical data, additional information can be extracted from these images as a form of data collection. Another example can be taken from the realm of atomic physics. InSir Isaac Newton discovered that when light from the sun is passed through a prism, it separates into a characteristic rainbow of light.
Almost years after Newton, John Herschel and W. Fox Talbot demonstrated that when substances are heated and the light they give off is passed through a prism, each element gives off a characteristic pattern of bright lines of color, but they did not understand why see Figure 8.
Inthe Danish physicist Niels Bohr used these images to make a startling proposal: He suggested that the line spectra of elements were due to the movement of electrons between different orbitals, and thus these spectra could provide information regarding the electron configuration of the elements see our Atomic Theory II: Ions, Isotopes, and Electron Shells module for more information. You can actually calculate the potential energy difference between electron orbitals in atoms by analyzing the color and thus wavelength of light emitted.
Line spectra for helium top and neon bottom. The location and color of the lines represents a unique wavelength that defines the electron configuration of the atoms. Photographs and videos are also visual data.
Ina group of scientists based in part at the Cornell Ornithology lab published their findings that a bird believed to be extinct in North America, the Ivory-billed Woodpecker, had been spotted in Arkansas Fitzpatrick et al.