II. Country Assessment--Serbia and Montenegro (Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo)
The EU's foreign policy towards Serbia produced better results .. The Kosovo war narratives and Serbia's European integration. .. A complex diplomatic and political relationship between the EU and Serbia is .. scholars and Western observers), Serbia was a 'normal' country that followed similar nation-. Serbia revoked Kosovo's autonomous status in and has instituted a campaign of repression that is impatience with the lack of progress has led to the use of terrorism to achieve political A shift in power towards the Albanian majority was accompanied .. patrols Kosovo intimidating Albanians on a regular basis. The central factor in the Yugoslav crisis is the relationship between the two biggest Kosovo issue with his emphasis on the Serbian role over the .. Presidency was typical of the unusual institutions introduced by Tito in an . Key events in the progression towards conflict were the appointment of.
Kosovo; the future of the SaM State Union; war crimes prosecution; and shattered economies. First and foremost was the decision by the U. Nevertheless, Serbia's continuing inability to transfer all remaining indicted war crimes suspects, including Ratko Mladic, to The Hague Tribunal and come to terms with its past hindered progress toward EU and NATO integration and has hampered relations with the United States.
The lack of a broad consensus over these issues and over the country's general direction has polarized domestic politics and strengthened extreme nationalist forces. Developments in Kosovo continued to affect regional stability and to dominate political life in Serbia. In order to mitigate potential instability arising from Kosovo developments and to foster stability in ethnically sensitive regions, the USG continued to direct substantial resources to vulnerable areas in Serbia and Montenegro.
Substantial USG assistance was directed to three municipalities along the Serbia-Kosovo boundary line in which large numbers of ethnic Albanians residethe predominately Bosniac Muslim area of Sandzak, and to the ethnically diverse region of Vojvodina. Fundamental disagreements between SaM's two constituent republics about the future of the State Union complicated relations between Montenegro and Serbia, rendered many of its institutions dysfunctional, and slowed the process of Euro-Atlantic integration.
The Montenegrin Government announced it will hold a referendum on independence in the first half of The USG has strongly encouraged both republics to strengthen ties with each other regardless of the outcome of that referendum, and USG assistance efforts in both republics have been targeted at supporting inter-republic cooperation and at facilitating their integration into Euro-Atlantic institutions.
Although public corruption and organized criminal activity - including trafficking of people, weapons, and drugs - remain serious problems, there were some positive developments in the rule of law. In December, Serbia's Special War Crimes Chamber handed down its first conviction against Serb defendants for their role in over executions at Ovcara Croatia in Several other war crimes trials are currently underway in the court.
In order to strengthen the underpinnings necessary for the development of stable democratic institutions and accelerate its integration into the Euro-Atlantic community, the USG continued re-directing its assistance toward economic development and job creation in FY Although economic growth and reform continued inthis economic progress was not fast enough to satisfy a struggling population, a trend that fed the ultranationalist political parties in Serbia.
Ratings are based on a 1 to 5 scale, with 5 representing the greatest advancement. These charts provide a disaggregated look at each of the indices and are reported to Congress on a regular basis. Together, these charts provide a broad picture of where remaining gaps are in a country's performance, and to what extent these gaps are being filled.
For example, Serbia has made progress in all of the six areas with the greatest in Civil Society and Independent Media.
Serbia Economic Reform The "radar" or "spider web" graphs below illustrate Serbia's economic performance during For example, Serbia has made progress in four of the five areas with the greatest in 3 year Avg Inflation. The assassination of Serbian Prime Minister Zoran Djindjic in significantly undermined political reform in Serbia.
Democratic parties have proved unable to form effective coalitions, leading to weak leadership and fragmented reforms. This has produced a disillusioned public still waiting to see the tangible benefits of democratic government. Frequent elections in past years and frequent turnover in governing institutions have seriously undermined capacity.
The Milosevic-era constitution of is still in place, and important changes are needed to ensure effective checks and balances in government. Corruption in all branches of government and the weakness of parliament and the courts aggravate these conditions. Resistance to devolving resources and authority to local governments has further slowed the reform process. The civil society sector remains weak. Since the democratic changes of Octoberfew of the NGOs that worked to oust Milosevic have redefined themselves as effective reform advocates.
The Socialists and other smaller parties maintained seats in the parliament as well. The pro-EU bloc then joined with a Socialist-led bloc of parties to form a government. As a result, a small number of military officers held a considerable amount of power. The council invoked its powers during the secession period of the s, utilizing the Yugoslav armed forces in vain attempts to prevent Slovenian and Croatian independence.
The armed forces of Serbia and Montenegro were led by a Supreme Defense Council composed of three presidents. The country maintained a policy of universal defense of the state. Its armed forces contain both professional military personnel and conscripts.
Recruits performed their service in the territory of their own republic.
Serbia - Government and society | senshido.info
Almost all citizens, including women, were organized into a civil defense organization. Independent Serbia continued the policy of compulsory military servicethough it made plans to end the requirement. Its armed forces include an army, a navy, and an air force. Health and welfare Interwar Yugoslavia was noted for the endemic presence of malaria, typhus, typhoid, syphilis, dysentery, and trachoma.
By the s, however, these scourges had been reduced to individual cases. Still, Serbia suffers from significant health problems. Even before the civil unrest of the s, infant mortality was fairly high, especially in Kosovo. Only in the Vojvodina region did health standards approach those of central and western Europe. Pregnant women, infants, and children up to age 15 receive complete health care, as do students up to age All citizens also are entitled to treatment for infectious diseases and mental illness.
Still, about one-fifth of the population remain outside the health care system. Great emphasis is placed on training doctors. The communist regime of Yugoslavia established a comprehensive social welfare system that continues to provide a wide range of services in Serbia. All economically active persons are entitled to retirement and disability pensions; unemployment compensation and family allowances also are provided. These activities are the responsibility of commune governments, and significant variations exist between the administrative units.
Housing Housing is a perennial problem, particularly for young people in urban areas. Most city dwellers live in small apartments in high-rise buildings. Although communes bear responsibility for housing construction, much of the new housing stock has been built by enterprises.
Most villagers build and own their homes. The civil strife in the s left some two-thirds of the population impoverished and hundreds of thousands homeless. Assistance from the West only partially resolved the problem of housing, feeding, clothing, and providing medical care for a significant proportion of the population. Education Eight years of primary education are compulsory in Serbia, beginning at age seven.
Four years of secondary education also are available, divided between two types of schools: There are several universities; the largest is the University of Belgrade, founded in The communist regime of Yugoslavia made great strides toward eliminating illiteracy. By the s less than half the total population was literate. Less than one-tenth now remains illiterate, ranging lower in the Vojvodina.
U.S. Department of State
Cultural life Traditional Serbian society has a strong peasant patriarchal tradition that evolved under Ottoman domination and is still reflected in family and government structures. A distinctive feature is the zadrugaa corporate family group of or more individuals that originally worked the land under the direction of family elders. The zadruga functioned as a rural tradition well into the communist era. The advent of modern public services, however, took a toll on this system.
Even as elders lived increasingly longer, younger adults educated in an expanding school system chafed at patriarchal authority. By the s the zadruga system had evolved into a less-onerous system of cooperative extended family groups. Nevertheless, family loyalties continue to play a major role in Serbia, where nepotism in the workplace is a recurring phenomenon.
As is true of rural societies elsewhere, the Serbian countryside is a great repository of old customs, traditions, folklore, and belief. Anthropologists still travel there to gather stories of vampires and ghosts, while until the s scholars collected long epic poems from the guslars, or folksingers, who preserved them through memorization. Many rural women still create elaborate traditional costumes that are worn during holidays and family celebrations.
Belgrade hosts a range of cultural festivals, and Novi Sad is the site of a heavily attended agricultural fair held each May. Even the most urbane Serbs enjoy traditional cuisine, and the Skadarlija district in the heart of Belgrade abounds in restaurants serving national dishes as well as foods from all over the world.
Serbian cuisine reflects its Byzantine and Ottoman heritage and resembles that of Greece and Turkey in many respects.
Other popular dishes include sarma stuffed cabbagepodvarak roast meat with sauerkrautand moussaka a casserole of minced meat, eggs, and potatoes. Food is usually accompanied by domestically produced wines and slivovitz plum brandy. Moreover, a significant part of contemporary Serbian painting is based on traditions developed in Serbian church frescoes and icon painting.
Clubs in Belgrade and other cities offer performances by musicians working in a variety of genresincluding heavy metalreggae, punk, hip-hop, and even country and western. Serbia also has a long theatrical tradition and many professional theatres. The Serbian National Theatre building in Belgrade dates from Serbian cinema is also well established. Before the outbreak of World War II, motion picture companies in Belgrade produced a dozen feature films.
Filmmaking flourished in the post-World War II period; however, economic crisis and war in the s greatly hindered production. Indeed, the persistent and intensifying attempts of the government to control public communication during the s damaged Serbian cultural life in general.
Belgrade hosts an annual film festival. Cultural institutions Although some fell into disrepair and neglect during the tumultuous s, several fine museums and galleries are housed in Belgrade, among them the National Museum, the Gallery of Frescoes, the Ethnographic Museum, and the Palace of Princess Ljubice.
Novi Sad is the site of the Vojvodina Museum, and its Petrovaradin Fortress contains several galleries and exhibit halls. The oldest and most significant cultural and scientific institution in Serbia is Matica Srpska. Founded in in the Hungarian city of Pest, it moved to Novi Sad in Sports and recreation Recreational activities and sports are well developed throughout the republic, with hundreds of thousands of individuals registered as active participants in sports organizations.
Hunting and fishing are particularly popular, as are basketballgymnastics, martial arts, volleyballwater poloand football soccer. Within communist Yugoslavia, physical culture was always taken seriously by the state, although the advanced system that developed athletes in other Eastern-bloc countries never took root.
Support for sport was generally undertaken at the republic and municipal levels and also through the armed forces. Serbia became a member of the International Olympic Committee insending two participants that year to the Summer Olympic Gamesand a Yugoslav team debuted at the Summer Games. Participation in international sporting events was seriously disrupted by sanctions imposed on Yugoslavia in the s. Serbia has four national parks: Serbia is on the left and Romania on the right.
Poulsen Media and publishing Hundreds of newspapers are published in Serbia, some of which are also published on the Internet. Semimonthly and monthly journals and other serials are published in the republic.
Book publishing also is active, with thousands of titles appearing annually. Serbian television productions are noted for an original approach to the medium, though broadcasters and producers, especially those working for Radio Television Serbia RTSwere subject to heavy state censorship until very recently. There are television studios in Belgrade and Novi Sad. Additionally, there are several dozen radio stations. History The coming of the Serbs The use of the term Serb to name one of the Slavic peoples is of great antiquity.
The earliest information on the Serbs dates from the late 6th century, when they were vassals of the Avars and later clients of the Byzantine emperor Heraclius. In order to drive the Avars and Bulgars back toward the east, Heraclius concluded an alliance with several Slavic tribal groupings that had originated northeast of the Carpathian Mountains.
Under Byzantine patronage, Slavs settled widely in the Balkansreaching as far south as the Aegean Sea and even settling in parts of Asia Minor. The tribal groups known as the Serbs settled inland of the Dalmatian coast in an area extending from what is today eastern Herzegovinaacross northern Montenegroand into southeastern Serbia.
The Coming of the Slavs to Balkans Roman domination in the region was of relatively short duration. Military clashes with the Goths began early in the 2nd century, and the Goths were followed by Huns, Bulgars, and Avars over the next years.
The collapse of the Western Empire in the face of the advancing Germanic Ostrogoths at the end of the 5th century left the Balkans nominally under the rule of Constantinople, but the disruption of imperial administration in reality had gone so far that effective control was no longer possible. Along with other seminomadic peoples during this time, there began to move into the area tribes of Slavs, a group of Indo-European-speaking peoples who had long been settled in central Poland but who moved southward to occupy the sparsely populated areas left by the raids of the more warlike peoples.
The relative strength of the forces in the area is suggested by the Slavs' effective vassalage to the Avars, a Turkic people of warrior-nomads who led their Slavic subjects in raids against cities of the Byzantine Empire. It was not until the defeat of a combined Avar-Persian invasion in that Byzantium was able to reassert its strength.
The emperor Heraclius formed an alliance with two of the stronger Slavic tribes, the Serbs and the Croats, who at that time were settled north of the Carpathian Mountains. With the aid of the Byzantine navy the Serbs and Croats occupied the hinterland of the Dalmatian coast before pushing the Avars and Bulgars eastward.
The division of the Roman Empire between Roman and Byzantine rule--and subsequently between the Latin and Orthodox churches see the article on Great Schism --was marked by a line that ran northward from Skadar through modern Montenegro, symbolizing the status of this region as a perpetual marginal zone between the economic, cultural, and political worlds of the Mediterranean peoples and theSlavs. During the decline of Roman power, this part of the Dalmatian coast suffered from intermittent ravages by various seminomadic invaders, especially the Goths in the late 5th century and the Avars during the 6th century.
These were soon supplanted by the Slavs, who became widely established in Dalmatia by the middle of the 7th century. Because of the extremeruggedness of the terrain and the lack of any major sources of wealth such as mineral riches, the area that is now Montenegro became a haven for residual groups of earlier settlers, including some tribes who had escaped Romanization.
Approaching Novo Brdo - the largest Serb medieval town in Kosovo Medieval Serbian State The basis of social organization among the Serbs--indeed, among all the South Slavs--was the zadruga, a large extended family governed by a fairly democratic consensus of its adult members under the leadership of a patriarch.
The zadruge were typically united on a village basis around a single lineage under a headman. Larger political units covering a district might be gathered under a zupan, or chieftain, who would sometimes have his seat at a particular fortified strong point, called a grad. Because the zadruga system was based on ties of kinship and locality, it militated against the sustained collaboration of larger groups, although several zupani might on occasion be gathered under the uneasy leadership of a veliki zupan, or "grand zupan," who might manage to establish control over a substantial part of the territory and even declare himself king or emperor.
The first Serb state emerged about when a zupan called Vlastimir led a union of southern Serbs in resistance to Bulgarian expansion. His acknowledgment of the suzerainty of the Byzantine emperor was significant in that the Serbian court then became an important channel for the spread of the Eastern tradition of Christianity.
Michael encouraged them to preach in the vernacular, and, to facilitate this task, Cyril invented a script that was based upon Greek but adapted to suit the phonetic peculiarities of the Slavonic tongue. He used as his standard the dialect spoken by the Slav tribes of Macedonia, which thus was preserved as Old Church Slavonic. The dissemination of Christianity to the Slavs was not actually begun by the "apostles to the Slavs," but it received an enormous stimulus from the translation of the scriptures and liturgy, and the wider significance of their work was considerable.
Not only was the influence of the Eastern church permanently assured over the greater part of the Balkans, but the Cyrillic alphabet also became one of the most visible cultural badges separating the Serbs together with other Orthodox Slavs from the Croats and Slovenes.
Coronation of Emperor Dusan in Skopje The Nemanjic Dynasty Following the death of Vlastimir, his successors lost ground, initially to the first Bulgarian empire, then to the Macedonian empire of Samuel, and finally to Byzantium.
Some time toward the end of the 11th century, there arose a new Serb state known as Raska, based on the settlement of Ras in the region of modern Novi Pazar.
In Stefan Nemanja became veliki zupan of Raska, and, seizing the opportunity offered by a disputed succession in Constantinople, he began to extend his territory. By the time of his retirement to a monastery inhe had consolidated control over the rival Serb realm of Zeta, centred in what is now Montenegro.
As the Byzantine and second Bulgarian empires disintegrated, the Serbian Nemanjic rulers expanded their holdings southward. Uros II reigned occupied Skopje and made it his capital. In Sava was consecrated archbishop of Zica, near modern Kraljevo, at the confluence of the Ibar and Zapadna Morava rivers, where an autocephalous Serbian church was separated from the Bulgarian-influenced archbishopric of Ohrid.
He was later canonized as St. To escape the constant harassment of raiding parties of Tatars, however, the seat of Nemanjic ecclesiastical order was moved south to Pec, in the Metohija Basin. In it was elevated to a patriarchate.
Under Stefan Dusan reignedthe ninth ruler in the dynasty, the Nemanjic empire attained its greatest extent, incorporating Thessaly, Epirus, Macedonia, all of modern Albania and Montenegro, a substantial part of eastern Bosnia, and modern Serbia as far north as the Danube.
Ironically, it is conceivable that the greatest achievement of the Nemanjic dynasty was not its territorial expansion but its success in developing for the first time a unified "high culture" for all Serbs, based largely on religious cohesion. The court was committed to the Orthodox church, acting to suppress Bogomilism and ending attempts at the Latinization of the western areas.
Many churches and monasteries were built that have remained among the architectural glories of the Orthodox church; Milesevo c. The frescoes of the Raska school are known for their capacity to blend a reverential sense of the awe in which secular authority is held with a deep sense of religious devotion. Literary work extended beyond the copying of a considerable number of manuscripts to include pieces of independent creative merit, such as the manuscript biography of Stefan Nemanja prepared by St.
Sava and his brother Stefan. Courtly culture became a religious culture, and both church and state benefited from their close partnership. The ecclesiastical authorities acquired prestige and influence, while the court was given powerful symbolic support and was "civilized" in every sense. During the 13th and 14th centuries the level of economic development rose, although during times of armed strife considerable damage was suffered by the population.
Crops such as hemp, flax, grapes, and oil-yielding plants became more widespread. The plains of Kosovo and Metohija in particular became areas of dense population and fairly intensive cultivation, probably supporting more people than today. Mining grew considerably in importance. Copper, tin, silver, and gold had all been exploited in Roman times, but production intensified as the demand for coins and luxury goods expanded in the new imperial courts and the centres of ecclesiastical authority.
Trade also expanded, particularly in the hands of Ragusan and Italian merchants, who led caravans along the old Roman routes.
Administration improved; the high-sounding titles adopted by officials "despot," "caesar," or "sebastocrat" were more than mere mimicry of Byzantium. An important step in the direction of separating administration from the personal whim of the ruler was taken by Dusan, who in promulgated his Zakonik, or code of laws.
Medieval Zeta In this part of the Adriatic littoral, from the time of the arrival of the Slavs up to the 10th century, these local magnates were often brought into unstable and shifting alliances with other larger states, particularly Bulgaria, Venice, and Byzantium.
Between and one such zupan, Ceslav, operating from the zupanija of Zeta in the hinterland of the Gulf of Kotor modern Montenegrosucceeded in unifying a number of neighbouring Serb tribes and extended his control as far north as the Sava River and eastward to the Ibar. Zeta and its neighbouring zupanija of Raska roughly modern Kosovo then provided the territorial nucleus for a succession of Serb kingdoms that, in the 13th century, were consolidated under the Nemanjic dynasty.
Although the Serbs have come to be identified closely with the Eastern Orthodox tradition of Christianityit is an important indication of the continuing marginality of Zeta that Michael, the first of its rulers to claim the title king, had this honour bestowed upon him by Pope Gregory VII in It was only under the later Nemanjic rulers that the ecclesiastical allegiance of the Serbs to Constantinople was finally confirmed.
On the death of Stefan Dusan inthe Nemanjic empire began to crumble, and its holdings were divided among the knez prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic, the short-lived Bosnian state of Tvrtko I reignedand a semi-independent chiefdom of Zeta under the house of Balsa, with its capital at Skadar. Serb disunity coincided fatefully with the arrival in the Balkans of the Ottoman armies, and in Lazar fell to the forces of Sultan Murat I at the Battle of Kosovo.
After the Balsic dynasty died out inthe focus of Serb resistance shifted northward to Zabljak south of Podgorica. Here, a chieftain named Stefan Crnojevic set up his capital. Stefan was succeeded by Ivan the Black, who, in the unlikely setting of this barren and broken landscape and pressed by advancing Ottoman armies, created in his court a remarkable if fragile centre of civilization.Kosovo Urged To Build 'Normal Relationship' With Serbia
Ivan's son Djuradj built a monastery at Cetinje, founding there the see of a bishopric, and imported from Venice a printing press that produced after some of the earliest books in the Cyrillic script.
The holy relics of St. Prince Lazar of Kosovo Turkish Occupation The Ottoman Empire gained a foothold on the European mainland inand by the time of Dusan's death in the Turkish march northward had already begun. Dusan's successors were unable to sustain his achievements, and almost immediately the state began to disintegrate under rival clan leaders. The fall of Adrianople modern Edirne, Tur. The Ottoman conquest of the Balkan Peninsula was not a smooth progression.
Slav leaders were not infrequently willing to ally themselves with the Ottomans in the hope of securing aid against rivals. In this way they were able to retain a nominal independence for some years in return for a variety of forms of vassalage. One of the most celebrated of these leaders was Marko Kraljevic, the son of Vukasin and a chieftain of Prilep, who is immortalized in many of the heroic Serbian folk ballads.
In or a combined force of Serbs, Bosnians, and Bulgarians inflicted a heavy defeat on the Ottoman army at Plocnik, but a turning point came when the Bulgarian tsar Ivan Shishman broke with the alliance of Slavonic powers and accepted Ottoman suzerainty. No longer threatened from the east, the armies of Sultan Murat I were able to concentrate their weight against Serb resistance.
The vision of Lazar on the eve of the battle, the alleged betrayal by the Bosnian Vuk Brankovic, and the killing of Murat by Milos Obilic have been given assured immortality in Serbian folk literature.
Forced to accept the position of vassals to the Turks, Serb despots continued to rule a diminished state of Raska, at first from Belgrade and then from Smederevo. Serbian resistance cannot be considered to have ended until the fall of Smederevo in Kosovo maiden healing the wounded knights at Kosovo Polje, 19th cent.
At the centre of the Turkish system was the sultan and his court--often referred to as "the Sublime Porte" or simply "the Porte" --based in Constantinople. The origins of the empire in conquest were reflected in its administrative structure, which revolved around the extraction of revenues principally in order to support a military caste.
All authority and the right to enjoy possessions were regarded as deriving from the sultan, who "leased" them to subordinates at his own will and for his benefit. The most common of these relationships was the timar. The timarli held the right to support themselves from taxes raised in their area.
Typically, the holder of such a position was a spahi, or mounted warrior, and from his territory he was expected to support and arm himself in a state of readiness for the service of the sultan. All Muslims were regarded as belonging to a single community of the faithful, the ummah, and any person could join the ruling group by converting to Islam. Each non-Muslim religious community was called a millet, and Ottoman administration recognized five such groups: Each group was under the direction of its religious head.
Thus, the Serbs, being Orthodox, had as their titular head the patriarch of Constantinople. With the passage of time, however, national consciousness was recognized by the Ottoman authorities, and Constantinople became a specifically Greek centre.
The Serbs had their own patriarchate at Pec. Ecclesiastical authorities were expected to assume many civil functions, including the administration of justice, the collection of taxes, and later also education. The situation of the Christian population was not one of unmitigated oppression. Christians were exempted from military service, and in some regions the tax burden was lighter than it had previously been, although they were taxed more heavily than the Muslim population.
It was even possible for subject peoples to rise, on condition of their conversion, to the highest positions in the system. By far the most typical route of advancement was the system of devsirme, which involved the conscription of Christian boys between the ages of 10 and 20 approximately every five years.
The boys were taken to Constantinople, forcibly converted to Islam, and employed in a variety of posts. The Janissary corps was an elite, celibate order of infantrymen that, as firearms became more significant in warfare, came to be the most effective part of the Ottoman military.
Ottoman society was principally rural in character, the majority of the population living on small, mixed farms that produced little marketable surplus or in small pastoral communities. Trade and manufacture were not particularly encouraged by the Ottomans, whose principal concerns were with the extraction of revenue through taxation and the maintenance of order.
Commerce was regarded only as a possible source of excise duty. Levels of literacy remained low for the indigenous peoples. A few knew a little Greek--the lingua franca of trade--and knowledge of Old Church Slavonic was mostly confined to the clergy.
Culturally, therefore, the population remained highly differentiated, living most of their lives within the confines of local peasant communities, with their own dialects--the vehicle for folk songs and poetry--dress, and customs.
Period of Turkish occupation was remembered as a time of great suffering and humiliation of the Balkan Christian nations Decline of the Ottoman Empire The territorial expansion of the Ottoman Empire was brought to a halt during the 17th century, which reduced the need for a large, completely dedicated, and highly mobile corps of Janissaries.
Having lost their specifically military function, the Janissaries began to look for opportunities to obtain land or office. The declining flow of booty shifted the burden of the revenue needs of the empire onto the system of taxation. This in turn led to both a steady rise in the level of exactions from the Christian population, through a spread of tax farming, and a growth in the number of holders of former timarli who tried to turn their holdings into agricultural estates.
The disintegration of the old system brought with it growing dissatisfaction on the part of the Christian population. Armed uprisings by the peasantry were particularly common in the northern areas, where imperial control was weakest and the Janissaries least disciplined.
The greatest of these took place inwhen Serbs rose in support of an Austrian invasion after the Turks' unsuccessful siege of Vienna.
However, the subsequent retreat of the Austrians left the native population seriously exposed to Turkish reprisals, and in Archbishop Arsenije III Crnojevic of Pec led a migration of 30, families from Old Serbia Kosovo, Metohija and Raska region and southern Bosnia across the Danube.
As a consequence, parts of the Austrian Military Frontier came to contain some of the major centres of Serbian culture.
At the same time, the spread of Albanian Muslims into lands left vacant by the great migration was to provide a continuing source of communal tension. It was also the period of intensive islamization when a considerable number of Christians were forced to convert to Islam in order to evade heavy taxation and reprilals. By the middle of the 18th century, the disintegration of Ottoman rule produced a highly unstable situation in Serbia.
In an attempt to hellenize the church within the empire, the patriarchate at Pec was abolished and the Serbian church brought under the control of the Greek patriarch. In northern Serbia, local Janissaries were virtually beyond the control of the Porte, and their exactions passed from the collection of taxes to open plunder.
When war broke out between Turkey and an Austro-Russian alliance inthe Austrian emperor called on the discontented Serbs to rise against their overlords, and this they did with some success.
The treaties of Sistova and Jassy that concluded hostilities included a defense of Serb civil rights. The Janissaries were expelled from the pashalic of Belgrade, but they soon returned, and a period of endemic political disorder set in. In an uprising broke out in the Sumadija region, south of Belgrade. It was led by George Petrovic, called Karageorge Black Georgea successful trader, who had served with the Austrians in the war against Turkey in In a Skupstina Assembly was summoned by Karageorge, and it submitted a list of proposals to the sultan.
The proposals included a number of concessions to local autonomy that were unacceptable to the sultan, and a large force was sent to quell the rebellion. The Serbs continued to hold out, however, and they were strengthened by the arrival of Russian reinforcements in However, threatened by Napoleonic invasion inthe tsar Alexander I concluded a treaty with the Turks.
The withdrawal of Russia left the Serbs open to Ottoman reprisals, and by the end of Karageorge and the remainder of his followers were compelled to retreat across the Danube. The return of the Turks was accompanied by a widespread reign of terror. Preoccupied with the business of the Congress of Vienna, the major powers showed little interest in the fate of the Christian population, which rose again in self-defense in Aprilled by Milos Obrenovic.
The Turks were driven from a wide area of northern Serbia, and they were soon forced to negotiate. The fall of Napoleon meant that Russian interest was rekindled, and under threat of Russian intervention several important concessions were made to the rebels, including the retention of their arms, considerable powers of local administration, and the right to hold their own assembly.
The region remained a Turkish principality, with a resident pasha and Turkish garrisons in the principal towns, but in effect an independent Serbian state dates from this time.
Peter Petrovic II Njegos - a statesman, Bishop and a poet Montenegro under the prince-bishops The year saw a shift in the constitution of Montenegro that many historians regard as having ensured its survival as an independent state. The last of the Crnojevic dynasty retired to Venice he had married a Venetian and conferred the succession upon the bishops of Cetinje. Formerly, the loyalty of minor chieftains and of the peasantry to their rulers had been unstable.
It was not unusual for political control throughout the Balkans to pass from Slav rulers to the Turks, not because of the defeat of the former in battle but because of the failure of local magnates to secure the support of their subjects. In Montenegro the position of vladika, as the prince-bishop was known, brought stability to that country's leadership.