Urbanization Quotes (9 quotes)
What is the relationship between cities and industry? Urbanization and industrialization are two transformative processes for wealth generation. The industrial Revolution, starting in late 18th century, had a significant urbanizing effect. Industrialization is the basic driving force of urbanization and. Industrial Quotes from BrainyQuote, an extensive collection of quotations by It's the Industrial Revolution and the growth of urban concentrations that led to a sense inequality, create new security risks, and undermine human relationships.
The technology was developed with the help of John Wyatt of Birmingham. Paul and Wyatt opened a mill in Birmingham which used their new rolling machine powered by a donkey. In a factory opened in Northampton with 50 spindles on each of five of Paul and Wyatt's machines. This operated until about A similar mill was built by Daniel Bourn in Leominsterbut this burnt down.
Both Lewis Paul and Daniel Bourn patented carding machines in Based on two sets of rollers that travelled at different speeds, it was later used in the first cotton spinning mill. Lewis's invention was later developed and improved by Richard Arkwright in his water frame and Samuel Crompton in his spinning mule.
Model of the spinning jenny in a museum in Wuppertal. Invented by James Hargreaves inthe spinning jenny was one of the innovations that started the revolution. In in the village of Stanhill, Lancashire, James Hargreaves invented the spinning jennywhich he patented in It was the first practical spinning frame with multiple spindles.
The jenny produced a lightly twisted yarn only suitable for weftnot warp. The design was partly based on a spinning machine built for Thomas High by clockmaker John Kay, who was hired by Arkwright.
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The roller spacing was slightly longer than the fibre length. Too close a spacing caused the fibres to break while too distant a spacing caused uneven thread. The top rollers were leather-covered and loading on the rollers was applied by a weight. The weights kept the twist from backing up before the rollers. The bottom rollers were wood and metal, with fluting along the length. A horse powered the first factory to use the spinning frame.
Arkwright and his partners used water power at a factory in Cromford, Derbyshire ingiving the invention its name. The only surviving example of a spinning mule built by the inventor Samuel Crompton. The mule produced high-quality thread with minimal labour. Samuel Crompton 's Spinning Mule was introduced in Mule implies a hybrid because it was a combination of the spinning jenny and the water frame, in which the spindles were placed on a carriage, which went through an operational sequence during which the rollers stopped while the carriage moved away from the drawing roller to finish drawing out the fibres as the spindles started rotating.
Mule spun thread was of suitable strength to be used as warp, and finally allowed Britain to produce highly competitive yarn in large quantities. In he patented a two-man operated loom which was more conventional.
Cartwright's loom design had several flaws, the most serious being thread breakage. Samuel Horrocks patented a fairly successful loom in Eli Whitney responded to the challenge by inventing the inexpensive cotton gin. A man using a cotton gin could remove seed from as much upland cotton in one day as would previously, working at the rate of one pound of cotton per day, have taken a woman two months to process. He is credited with a list of inventions, but these were actually developed by such people as Thomas Highs and John Kay ; Arkwright nurtured the inventors, patented the ideas, financed the initiatives, and protected the machines.
He created the cotton mill which brought the production processes together in a factory, and he developed the use of power — first horse power and then water power —which made cotton manufacture a mechanised industry. Other inventors increased the efficiency of the individual steps of spinning carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling so that the supply of yarn increased greatly.
Before long steam power was applied to drive textile machinery. Manchester acquired the nickname Cottonopolis during the early 19th century owing to its sprawl of textile factories. However, the high productivity of British textile manufacturing allowed coarser grades of British cloth to undersell hand-spun and woven fabric in low-wage India, eventually destroying the industry.
Productivity improvement in wool spinning during the Industrial Revolution was significant but was far less than that of cotton. Lombe learned silk thread manufacturing by taking a job in Italy and acting as an industrial spy; however, because the Italian silk industry guarded its secrets closely, the state of the industry at that time is unknown. Although Lombe's factory was technically successful, the supply of raw silk from Italy was cut off to eliminate competition.
In order to promote manufacturing the Crown paid for models of Lombe's machinery which were exhibited in the Tower of London. The burning coal remained separate from the iron and so did not contaminate the iron with impurities like sulphur and silica. This opened the way to increased iron production. The Iron BridgeShropshireEngland, the world's first bridge constructed of iron opened in Cast iron retaining plates; H.
Bridge wall UK iron production statistics Bar iron was the commodity form of iron used as the raw material for making hardware goods such as nails, wire, hinges, horse shoes, wagon tires, chains, etc.
A small amount of bar iron was converted into steel. Cast iron was used for pots, stoves and other items where its brittleness was tolerable. Most cast iron was refined and converted to bar iron, with substantial losses. Bar iron was also made by the bloomery process, which was the predominant iron smelting process until the late 18th century. In the UK in there were 20, tons of cast iron produced with charcoal and tons with coke. In charcoal iron production was 24, and coke iron was 2, tons.
In the production of charcoal cast iron was 14, tons while coke iron production was 54, tons. In charcoal cast iron production was 7, tons and coke cast iron wastons. In the UK was makingtons of bar iron with coke and 6, tons with charcoal; imports were 38, tons and exports were 24, tons. In the UK did not import bar iron but exported 31, tons.
For a given amount of heat, coal required much less labour to mine than cutting wood and converting it to charcoal,  and coal was much more abundant than wood, supplies of which were becoming scarce before the enormous increase in iron production that took place in the late 18th century.
In the smelting and refining of iron, coal and coke produced inferior iron to that made with charcoal because of the coal's sulfur content. Low sulfur coals were known, but they still contained harmful amounts. Conversion of coal to coke only slightly reduces the sulfur content. Another factor limiting the iron industry before the Industrial Revolution was the scarcity of water power to power blast bellows.
This limitation was overcome by the steam engine. These were operated by the flames playing on the ore and charcoal or coke mixture, reducing the oxide to metal.
This has the advantage that impurities such as sulphur ash in the coal do not migrate into the metal. This technology was applied to lead from and to copper from It was also applied to iron foundry work in the s, but in this case the reverberatory furnace was known as an air furnace.
The foundry cupola is a different, and later, innovation. By Abraham Darby made progress using coke to fuel his blast furnaces at Coalbrookdale.
He had the advantage over his rivals in that his pots, cast by his patented process, were thinner and cheaper than theirs. Coke pig iron was hardly used to produce wrought iron until —56, when Darby's son Abraham Darby II built furnaces at Horsehay and Ketley where low sulfur coal was available and not far from Coalbrookdale.
These new furnaces were equipped with water-powered bellows, the water being pumped by Newcomen steam engines. The Newcomen engines were not attached directly to the blowing cylinders because the engines alone could not produce a steady air blast. Abraham Darby III installed similar steam-pumped, water-powered blowing cylinders at the Dale Company when he took control in The Dale Company used several Newcomen engines to drain its mines and made parts for engines which it sold throughout the country.
Iniron master John Wilkinson patented a hydraulic powered blowing engine for blast furnaces. James Watt had great difficulty trying to have a cylinder made for his first steam engine.
In John Wilkinson, who built a cast iron blowing cylinder for his iron works, invented a precision boring machine for boring cylinders.
After Wilkinson bored the first successful cylinder for a Boulton and Watt steam engine inhe was given an exclusive contract for providing cylinders.
Use of lime or limestone required higher furnace temperatures to form a free-flowing slag. The increased furnace temperature made possible by improved blowing also increased the capacity of blast furnaces and allowed for increased furnace height. Europe relied on the bloomery for most of its wrought iron until the large scale production of cast iron. Conversion of cast iron was done in a finery forgeas it long had been.
An improved refining process known as potting and stamping was developed, but this was superseded by Henry Cort 's puddling process. Cort developed two significant iron manufacturing processes: Puddling was a means of decarburizing molten pig iron by slow oxidation in a reverberatory furnace by manually stirring it with a long rod.
The decarburized iron, having a higher melting point than cast iron, was raked into globs by the puddler. When the glob was large enough, the puddler would remove it. Puddling was backbreaking and extremely hot work. Few puddlers lived to be The puddling process continued to be used until the late 19th century when iron was being displaced by steel.
Because puddling required human skill in sensing the iron globs, it was never successfully mechanised. Rolling was an important part of the puddling process because the grooved rollers expelled most of the molten slag and consolidated the mass of hot wrought iron.
- Difference between Industrialization and Urbanization
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Can we provide enough energy? Can we do it, all that, while mitigating and adapting to climate change? And can we do all that in 21 years time? That's when these things are going to start hitting in a really big way. We need to act now. We need investment in science and technology, and all the other ways of treating very seriously these major problems. John Guillebaud and Dr Pip Hayes, writing in the British Medical Journal July Birth control is a green option - Times headline 27 July Who is going to be the first to face up to the need for self-restraint in the number of children brought into the world?
When humans breed out of control it's called "economic growth" - unknown Everybody talks about population growth and its disastrous effect on climate change, food security and resource depletion, but nobody does anything about it - Phil Harding, Saltford The mother of the year should be a sterilized woman with two adopted children - Paul R Ehrlich Return to Top I think still it is very fine not to want children.
There are far too many people in the world. It is my contribution to ecology - Helen Mirren, actress One always returns to the fact that there are just too many of us, the population continues to rise and it's unsustainable - Jeremy Irons, actor Population growth - it's environmentalists' elephant in the room.
But we ignore it at our peril - Nick Reeves, Executive Director, CIWEM November Reducing consumption is imperative, but it's pointless to cut out meat and cars while having lots of children - Madeleine Bunting, columnist The Guardian, 10 September If we do not design policies to halt, and then reverse population growth, Nature by default will soon exact a most punishing solution - 'Turning the Elephant Round - Achieving Sustainability in a World Entering Overshoot', Fred Thompson, Ottawa Human numbers are a crucial element of ecological sustainability and the biggest underlying cause of many environmental problems Yet population has become the issue no one wants to talk about - ignored by governments, politicians, environmental groups and the media because it's too 'sensitive' - Optimum Population Trust, Low carbon, resource efficient solutions and halting then reversing population growth are two sides of the same coin - Phil Harding, Saltford Can a growing human population still leave space for wildlife?
Everything we manage to achieve for the natural environment is being wiped out by the nearly 80 million extra people each year who need to use up space and resources - Optimum Population Trust, Absolutely love the new campaign from the Optimum Population Trust: The most effective national and global climate change strategy is limiting the size of the population. Population limitation should therefore be seen as the most cost-effective carbon offsetting strategy available to individuals and nations - a strategy that applies with even more force to developed nations such as the UK because of their higher consumption levels - 'Population-Based Climate Strategy', Optimum Population Trust, May Our challenge, our generation's unique challenge, is learning to live peacefully and sustainably in an extraordinarily crowded world.
Our planet is crowded to an unprecendented degree. It is bursting at the seams. It's bursting at the seams in human terms, in economic terms, and in ecological terms - Professor Jeffrey Sachs, economist, Reith Lecture, 11 April Producing lots of extra Brits, whether through higher birth rates or immigration, is a selfish strategy both economically and environmentally.
Not only will it increase overcrowding and congestion and put huge extra strain on resources and habitats in the UK; because British consumers have such a heavy global footprint, it will intensify our impact on the Earth's ecosystems - David Nicholson-Lord, research associate, Optimum Population Trust It is environmental illiteracy and a complete lack of forward thinking to ignore the need to halt and then reverse population growth in the context of climate change, travel congestion, unaffordable housing, and resource depletion - Phil Harding, Saltford Our new technologies, combined with our numbers, have made us, collectively, a force of nature - Al Gore, 45th Vice President of the United States, 'An Inconvenient Truth' The first law of sustainability: The consequences are already clear - Earth is under mounting stress from human activities, with its climate changing and its ecosystems failing.
But recognition that we must act urgently to preserve our natural habitat has been undermined by persistent failure to admit the multiplier effect of human numbers - www.
If we do not take charge of our population size, then nature will do it for us and it is the poor people of the world who will suffer most - Sir David Attenborough No matter how lofty or worthy your cause may be, without population control you are pursuing a lost cause - Michael E Arth, artist Either we limit population growth or the natural world will do it for us The UK's population on its way to a target of 30 million by Wide open landscapes - think of France Housing freed up at affordable prices.
Britain's lost countryside gradually being restored. Restored wildlife and relieved pressure on fish stocks. Widespread organic farming and local food sourcing. An end to age discrimination in employment. Uncongested roads and more space for public transport projects. Nuclear and fossil fuel-driven power stations cut by more than half. Half the UK's energy needs met from renewable sources. Greenhouse gas emissions reduced to sustainable levels. More space, silence and starlit skies - www.
During my children's lifetime, it is likely to exceed nine billion. You don't need to be an expert to realise that sustainable development is going to become the greatest challenge we face this century - Tony Blair, March There is a clear connection between population growth and virtually every challenge facing our planet - Population Connection Return to Top Instead of controlling the environment for the benefit of the population, perhaps we should control the population to ensure the survival of our environment - Sir David Attenborough Either we limit our population growth, or the natural world will do it for us.
And the natural world is doing it for us right now - Sir David Attenborough The only real form of pollution is people. Any ecological system which does not include the reduction or stopping of growth of the population is eyewash - Professor Heinz Wolf UK Innovation Lecture, Bournemouth Excessive population growth may reduce output per worker, repress levels of living for the masses and engender strife - Confucious Overpopulation in various countries has become a serious threat to the health of people and a grave obstacle to any attempt to organise peace on this planet - Albert Einstein Either we reduce the world's population voluntarily or nature will do this for us, but brutally - Maurice Strong, former under-secretary general of the United Nations Climate Change Ref 91f What if we are wrong about climate change and we create a better world for nothing.?
We don't need an army of actuaries to tell us that the catastrophic impacts of climate change will be felt beyond the traditional horizons of most actors - imposing a cost on future generations that the current generation has no direct incentive to fix - Mark Carney, Governor of the Bank of England speech given at Lloyd's of London, Don't undermine the science just because you don't like the economics - Professor Brian Cox writing in The Guardian, 3.
Never before in history have human beings been called on to act collectively in defence of the Earth - Archbishop Desmond Tutu The Observer, You and you and you, and me.
And it is not just that we can stop it, we have a responsibility to do so that began in the genesis of humanity, when God commanded the earliest human inhabitants of the Garden of Eden, "to till it and keep it". To "keep" it; not to abuse it, not to make as much money as possible from it, not to destroy it - Archbishop Desmond Tutu The Observer, We can stop this madness - Yeb Sano, Head, Philippines Government delegation to the UN climate talks, Warsaw, Novemberin wake of devastating typhoon Haiyan Return to Top Unless a price can be put on carbon emissions that is high enough to force power companies and manufacturers to reduce their fossil-fuel use, there seems to be little chance of avoiding hugely damaging temperature increases - Dr Rakendra Pachauri, Chairman, UN IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeSeptember An extremely effective instrument would be to put a price on carbon.
It is only through the market that you can get a large enough and rapid enough response [to climate change] - Dr Rakendra Pachauri, Chairman, UN IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate ChangeSeptember For us climate change, energy affordability, security of supply are the key global issues - EDF Energy, UK We're not at the point of trying to stop global warming; it's too late for that.
We're trying to keep it from becoming a complete and utter calamity - Bill McKibben, The later governments leave tackling climate change, the harder it will be to combat The variation we are seeing in temperature or rainfall is double the rate of the average.
That suggests that we are going to have more droughts, we are going to have more floods, we are going to have more sea surges and we are going to have more storms.
Do we want to play Russian roulette with two bullets or one? When I look at this data, the trend is perfectly in line with a temperature increase of 6 degrees Celsius, which would have devastating consequences for the planet.
It demands an urgent and radical response across the developed and developing world - UK Department of Energy and Climate Change, Climate change is the greatest threat to our common future.
We have a very short period of time to tackle the problem before it becomes irreversible and out of control. It has the potential to take all the other critical issues we face as a global community and transform their severity into a cataclysm. Reducing poverty, increasing food production, combating terrorism and sustaining economic development are all vital priorities, but it is increasingly clear how rapid climate change will make them even more difficult to address.
Climate change will make poverty permanent - Nazmul Chowdhury, Practical Action, Bangladesh A stable climate is the most fundamental resource of all. It really is time for action When you explain what needs to be done to stop it, they call you a communist - George Monbiot, author, columnist and environmental campaigner writing in The Guardian, 4 December It is clear that climate change poses an urgent challenge, not only a challenge that threatens the environment but also international peace and security, prosperity and development.
And as the Stern report showed, the economic effects of climate change on this scale cannot be ignored, but the costs can be limited if we act early - Prime Minister Gordon Brown Statement on Climate Change, 17 November The interdependent nature of the climate change challenge necessitates an interdependent energy supply strategy.
Industrial Revolution - Wikipedia
It is a civilizational problem. Climate change is not just another issue. If it is not addressed in very short order, it will swamp every other issue facing us today - Ross Gelbspan, author 'The Heat is on - The Climate Crisis' Climate change will not be effectively managed until individuals and communities recognise that their behaviour can make a difference - The Royal Society, Climate Change: The science is done.
I say the debate is over. We know the science, we see the threat and we know that the time for action is now - Arnold Schwarzenegger, Governor of California, speaking on World Environment Day in San Francisco, 5 June The issue of climate change is one that we ignore at our own peril - President Barack Obama As you warm the climate, you basically raise the speed limit on hurricanes - Kerry A Emanuel, Atmospheric Scientist, MIT Return to Top Delaying action to address climate change will increase the environmental and societal consequences as well as the costs.
The longer we wait to tackle climate change, the harder and more expensive the task will be - American Association for the Advancement of Science public statement 18 February In addition to rapidly reducing greenhouse gas emissions, it is essential that we develop strategies to adapt to ongoing changes and make communities more resilient to future changes - American Association for the Advancement of Science public statement 18 February The growing torrent of information presents a clear message: It is time to muster the political will for concerted action.
The time is now. We must rise to the challenge. We owe this to future generations - American Association for the Advancement of Science public statement 18 February Each and every one of us can make changes in the way we live our lives and become part of the solution [to climate change] - Al Gore, 45th Vice President of the United States, 'An Inconvenient Truth' Essentially, by we need all activities outside agriculture to be near zero carbon emitting if we are to stop carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere growing - David Miliband, Secretary of State for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs personal blog, 1 November First, climate change is the greatest long-term threat faced by humanity.
It could cause more human and financial suffering than the two world wars and the great depression put together.