Language – Culture – Literature : East African Perspective - Association des Sciences du Langage
Thus Omani Arabic is the primary linguistic influence in Arabic in East Africa. Most Swahili forms The Swahili language and culture grew up this way. The Arabs may have in East Africa. The relationship of Tanzania and Swahili to Oman. The traditional language families spoken in Africa: Afroasiatic · Nilo-Saharan · Niger–Congo · Bantu · Khoisan · Indo-European · Austronesian. The languages of Africa are divided into six major language families: Afroasiatic languages are .. Tonal languages are also found in the Omotic, Chadic and South & East Cushitic. Since the field of cross-cultural psychology emerged, researchers have questioned . The languages used included English (Kenya), in addition the following.
This is said to be no longer intelligible with Sudan Creole Arabic. The author is a Catholic priest, "Father Kizito, " who has a regular column and wrote this feature on the Nubi.
My understanding is that Sudan Creole is a different speech form from Juba Arabic. At any rate, the Kenya Nubi ans use Swahili to speak with the world, not any form of Arabic. They are highly literate in Swahili and English. I doubt if the population numbers would warrant translation or direct ministry in Nubian Creole.
It seems to me that Juba Arabic would be a viable and appropriate language form for at least non-print communication in Sudan.
I do not think it is viable for Kenya, even for the Nubi. Everything related to learning or writing or contact with the outside world appears to be in Swahili or English and they seem totally bilingual. Unfortunately, I have not had sufficient personal contact to say whether Swahili is their decision-making language. The people are called Nubi, or possibly Nubis and alternatively, Nubians. Their language is appropriately referred to as Nubian Creole or Nubi.
However, the term Kinubi for their language seems to indicate their bilingualism in Swahili and their association with Kenyan African society. Though some refer to their language as Kinubi, it would not be appropriate in technical linguistic usage to call their language by this term, as that is the word for their language in Swahili.
Arabic in Kenya I think there are sufficient formal and anecdotal data to indicate that Arabic is not a primary language of any indigenous group of Kenyans. It appears that the primary constituency whose mother tongue is English would be primarily Yemenis who are non-citizens.
I think a case might be made for Arabic on the Tanzania coast, but not for Zanzibar. The African Zanzibaris rebelled against the Omani Zanzibaris in a bloody revolution right after independence.
One reason for this is that it is not clear whether Kordofanian was the first branch to diverge from rest of Niger—Congo. Mande has been claimed to be equally or more divergent. Niger—Congo is generally accepted by linguists, though a few question the inclusion of Mande and Dogonand there is no conclusive evidence for the inclusion of Ubangian.
Other language families[ edit ] Austronesian[ edit ] Malagasy belongs to the Austronesian languages and is the westernmost branch of the family. It is the national and co-official language of Madagascar and one of Malagasy dialects called Bushi is also spoken in Mayotte.
The ancestors of the Malagasy people migrated to Madagascar around 1, years ago from Southeast Asia, more specifically the island of Borneo.
The origins of how they arrived to Madagascar remains a mystery, however the Austronesians are known for their seafaring culture.
Despite the geographical isolation, Malagasy still has strong resemblance to Barito languages especially the Ma'anyan language of southern Borneo.
With more than 20 million speakers, Malagasy is one of the most widely spoken of the Austronesian languages. Indo-European[ edit ] Afrikaans is Indo-Europeanas is most of the vocabulary of most African creole languages. Afrikaans evolved from the Dutch vernacular   of South Holland Hollandic dialect   spoken by the mainly Dutch settlers of what is now South Africawhere it gradually began to develop distinguishing characteristics in the course of the 18th century. In Namibia it is the lingua franca and in Botswana and Zimbabwe it is a minority language of roughly several ten thousand people.
Overall 15 to 20 million people are estimated to speak Afrikaans. Indian, Arab and European. Religion The Kenyan Constitution guarantees freedom of religion. The balance of the population follows traditional African, often animist, beliefs. Christians tend to be concentrated in the west and central sections of the country while Muslims cluster in the eastern coastal regions.
Most Kenyans interweave native beliefs into a traditional religion. Group Orientation Kenyans are group-orientated rather than individualistic. The concept is essentially about mutual assistance, mutual effort, mutual responsibility and community self-reliance.
This principle has historically been practiced by every ethnic group with its roots in cooperative farming or herding. Harambee took on a more political resonance when used at the time of independence by Jomo Kenyatta as a way to bring people together. The Role of the Family As you might expect in a group-orientated culture, the extended family is the basis of the social structure.
Languages of Africa - Wikipedia
It includes relatives on both sides of the family as well as close friends. When people marry, they join their families, thus ensuring that there will always be a group to turn to in times of need. Ancestors Like most Africans, Kenyans place a large emphasis on the respect and reverence of their deceased ancestors.
This is not ancestor worship per se, but rather a belief that when someone dies their spirit lives on and must be acknowledged. The belief is that the person only really dies completely when their relatives no longer remember them. Therefore, they may make offerings to them or name a baby after one so that his spirit can live in the child. Demonstrating respect towards ancestors is believed to maintain harmonious relationships within the family, extended family, and clan or tribe.
When greeting someone with whom you have a personal relationship, the handshake is more prolonged than the one given to a casual acquaintance. Close female friends may hug and kiss once on each cheek instead of shaking hands. When greeting an elder or someone of higher status, grasp the right wrist with the left hand while shaking hands to demonstrate respect.
After the handshake it is the norm to ask questions about the health, their family, business and anything else you know about the person. To skip or rush this element in the greeting process is the height of poor manners. People are generally addressed by their academic, professional or honorific title followed by their surname. Once a personal relationship has developed, you may be able to address a person by their title and first name, first name alone, or nickname.
Wait for the Kenyan to determine that your friendship has reached this level of intimacy. Children generally refer to adults as Aunt or Uncle, even if there is not a familial relationship. Gifts need not be expensive. In fact, practical gifts are preferred. Kenya is a poor country and a gift of something that the person cannot generally afford is always welcome.