Borneol, Artemesia and Moxa
the presence of excess methanol. Draw and label the major product isoborneol and the minor product borneol (4pts). What is the stereochemistry at the new. OXIDATION-REDUCTION SCHEME: BORNEOL - CAMPHOR - ISOBORNEOL. LEARNING OBJECTIVES: To illustrate the concepts of oxidation and reduction in . Borneol, a bicyclic monoterpene, has been evaluated for antinociceptive Carrageenan; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Male; Mice; Pain Perception/ drug effects*; Pain Threshold/drug effects*; Peritonitis/chemically induced; Peritonitis/drug therapy* Analgesics; Bornanes; Carrageenan; isoborneol.
Moxibustion on shenque point requires zhuan g. This point is an important point for reinforcement, capable of strengthening the spleen and stomach. Both moxa stick and moxa cone are advisable for moxibustion on this point, the duration of which may last minutes.
Frequent moxibustion at this point can strengthen the body and contribute to longevity, for it replenishes the kidney and invigorates yang. When using moxa sticks for moxibustion, it should last minutes, and in the case of using moxa cones, cones are usually needed each time.
The authors state that the duration of moxibustion should be at least minutes, but not more than minutes. A relatively longer duration of treatment is indicated for recovery from a serious disease or injury to recapture good health, in autumn and winter, on points of the abdomen i. Relatively shorter duration of treatment is indicated for simple health maintenance and longevity promotion, for spring and summer treatments, when applying moxibustion to the limbs i.
The aim of strengthening the body and achieving longevity cannot be achieved by just applying moxibustion once or twice, for it requires persistence for a long time. This does not mean that one should receive moxibustion every day. For the purpose of convalescence for the weak and sick, the moxibustion may be applied once every days in the early stage; yet for reinforcement of the body or longevity, it should be once a week in the early stage.
And when it has shown some effect, the frequency can be reduced to once a month, and later, once or twice every three months, or even once or twice a year. So long as the practice is persisted in, good effect is sure to ensue. A treatment along these lines was described by Song and Zhu 17 in one of the few articles on moxibustion in the Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine. They treated 97 patients with gastric spasms or intestinal spasms with moxibustion, relying primarily on the abdomen points CV-8 along with ST for intestinal spasm and CV along with ST for gastric spasm.
The secondary points surrounding ST were picked because of the intent to treat an acute symptom, but the function is similar. The authors report that nearly all the patients had their abdominal pain alleviated with one treatment.
The technique used was: The moxa roll was ignited and placed over the selected points to produce a comfortable warm feeling. When the heat became excessive, the moxa roll was moved around the points or a little higher to avoid burns.
A piece of gauze could be laid over the point to protect the skin from accidental injury. Today, especially in the West, herbal moxibustion is sometimes substituted by heat lamps or other techniques that eliminate the artemisia altogether.
This may change the functions of moxibustion in a way that is not known. Also, many traditional moxa specialists believed that blistering of the skin was essential to the success of moxibustion when treating serious ailments, much the way that getting the qi reaction to needling was deemed essential to getting success with acupuncture therapy. This method is even mentioned in relation to Keeping-fit Moxibustion, which is for preventive health care.
Such intensive moxibustion is avoided in the Western practice, which follows more closely the method used for the gastric and intestinal spasm treatments, though most Westerners use very brief rather than prolonged moxa therapy in the study mentioned above, the duration of treatment was about 15 minutes per point at two points to yield a 30 minute moxa session.
One theory of the effects of moxibustion and acupuncture is that the local tissue damage twisting of nerve fibers when stimulating acupuncture needles, extended cellular damage by the intense heat of moxibustion initiates a non-specific healing reaction that can have effects throughout the body.
Modern techniques of acupuncture and moxibustion therapy may rely, instead on mechanisms of stimulation that do not depend on tissue damage. However, it must also be recognized that some modern techniques may do little more than comfortably warm the skin and help induce general relaxation. An additional impact of moxibustion may be to help sterilize the atmosphere of the rooms in which it is being used. In China an incense made of artemisia and atractylodes cangzhuwhen burned in an outpatient operation room, would reduce the bacterial count in the air.
It also apparently inhibited viruses. According to Chinese evaluations, it could be used in kindergartens and nurseries to reduce the transmission of diseases, including chicken pox, mumps, scarlet fever, common cold, and bronchitis.
Thus, when used in an acupuncture clinic, the smoke from moxibustion might help to prevent transmission of disease from one patient to another, which is especially important when dealing with immune-compromised patients. This report was provided by Smith and Stuart: As this plant [artemisia] is so frequently used as a charm, and is held in a measure of superstitious veneration by the people, it is a little difficult to determine just where its remedial use in native therapeutics begins.
At the time of the Dragon Festival fifth day of the fifth moonthe Artemisia is hung up to ward off noxious influences. This is done either together with a Taoist charm, in which case it is called aifu and is hung at the head of the principal room of the house, or together with the Acorus calamus changpu at the door; the leaves of the latter being formed in the shape of a sword called puchien and placed over the door, while the stalk of the artemisia is hung on each door post.
That this was efficacious in at least one instance was attested by the fact that the famous rebel Huang Ch'ao gave orders to his soldiers to spare any family that had Artemisia hung up at the door. The moxa is employed by Buddhist priests in initiating neophytes; three rows of three, four, or five scars each being burned on the crown of the head with this substance. Many also use the moxa on a three day old child, burning one or more scars on the face; this being supposed to insure the child's living through infancy.
The places of burning are between the brows, on each cheek a little distance beneath the eyes, and at the root of the nose on the upper lip. The uses of artemisia by the Chinese find a remarkable parallel with that of the Native Americans.
Probably the most commonly used herb for dispelling demons is the one we often refer to as "wild sage" but is actually artemisia.
The following descriptions come from Uses of Plants by the Indians of the Missouri River Region 18including mention of simple herbal remedies with demon-dispelling approaches: Artemisia gnaphalodes wild sage: A decoction of the plant was taken for stomach troubles and many other kinds of ailments. It was used also for bathing. A person who had unwittingly broken some taboo or had touched any sacred object must bathe with Artemisia.
The immaterial essence or, to use the Dakota word, the to, of Artemisia was believed to be effectual as a protection against maleficent powers; therefore, it was always proper to begin any ceremonial by using Artemisia in order to drive away any evil influences.
As an example of the use among the Omaha of Artemisia, to avert calamity it is related that two horses ran wild in the camp, knocking down the Sacred Tent. Two old men, having caught the horses, rubbed them all over with wild sage, and said to the young son of the owner, "If you let them do that again, the buffaloes shall gore them.
It has already been mentioned that various species of Artemisia were used in old times as incense for the purpose of exorcising evil powers.
It has also been stated that cedar twigs or sweet grass, either one, were used as incense to attract good powers. Some Christian Indians also still employ all these species as incense for these specific purposes, in church services, especially at Christmas, Easter, Pentecost, and on occasion of funerals. The writer has seen the use of Artemisia as an incense before a church door just before the body was carried into the church.
A small fire was made before the steps of the church, Artemisia tops being used to raise a cloud of smoke. Some species could be used for attracting good, not just repelling evil: Among the Winnebago the chewed root was put on the clothes as a love charm and hunting charm. The effect was supposed to be secured by getting to windward of the object of desire, allowing the wind to waft the odor of the herb thither.
The Omaha ascribed the same powers to this species and used it in the same ways as they did the gray species of this genus [see above]. It was used also in smoke treatment. A Winnebago medicine-man said a handful of the tops of this species dipped into warm water served as a sprinkler for the body to relieve fevers.Tony Robbins - How to Rebuild a Broken Relationship - Tony Robbins Relationships
According to a Pawnee informant, a decoction made of the tops was used for bathing as a remedy for rheumatism Sweetgrass, often used with wild sage, is described thus: It was used for perfume and was burned as an incense in any ceremony or ritual to induce the presence of good influences or benevolent powers, while wild sage, a species of Artemisia, was burned to exorcise evil influences or malevolent powers.
Aside from any mystical essence that Artemisia might possess, the unifying feature of the Chinese and Native American uses of this plant is its smoke and accompanying fragrance.
Lab 9 – Oxidation of Borneol, Reduction of Camphor Flashcards Preview
This is, to a large extent, the heavenly fragrance of borneol. Borneol was also used in Chinese internal remedies for treating demon-caused diseases. These remedies were made up of the most rare and auspicious materials. Two examples should illustrate the point: Angong Niuhuang Wan Rare animal components: Using the more commonly relied upon descriptions of the medicinal materials and their actions, these substances opened blocked orifices e.
However, one can see by the selection of the particular materials, that these were "precious pills" relied upon for the disorders that were beyond the usual experience. Hong-Yen Hsu, et al. Materia Medica, rev.
Xu Xiangcai chief ed.
Lab 9 – Oxidation of Borneol, Reduction of Camphor Flashcards by Ramneet Kaur | Brainscape
On the third pass P3 they were trypsinized and counted before administration to the experimental mice. The medium was replaced every 3 days for 2 weeks.
Calcium deposits and fat droplet formation were observed by Alizarin Red S staining and oil red O staining, respectively. The filament was removed after 1 h occlusion to induce reperfusion.
Sham group received the same procedure without the induction of the filament. Mice receiving surgery showing a Longa score from 1 to 3 points at 6 h post-stroke were included in this study Longa et al. MCAO plus saline group received the same procedure except for the injection of the same amount of saline. Neurological Deficits Evaluation Neurological deficits were evaluated by global score of neurological score Wahl et al.
The scores of the three tests were added as the global score, the maximum of which was The lower global score indicated the more severe neurological deficits. The brain was removed and then coronally sliced into 1 mm slices.
Normal brain tissue was stained red while the unstained area was considered to be the infarct area. Sections were counterstained with DAPI. Second antibodies including goat anti-rabbit or goat anti-mouse secondary antibody-conjugated to Alexa 1: Immunofluorescent signaling was observed with an Olympus fluorescence microscope Olympus, Tokyo, Japan.
Normality was determined using the Kolmogorov—Smirnov test.
If normality was given and there were no significant differences in variance between groups F-testmultiple groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance ANOVA and followed by LSD post hoc comparisons when appropriate. Otherwise, comparisons for non-normally distributed data were performed using non-parametric Kruskal—Wallis test followed by Mann—Whitney U-test.
All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS The MSCs showed typical fibroblast-like cell morphology in culture Figure 1. The cell matrix exhibited nodus-like calcium deposition following the alizarin red staining and enlarged and fused fat drops in some cell bodies appeared salmon pink following oil red staining after 2 weeks induction, suggesting that these MSCs had the ability to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes Figure 1. Morphology and differentiation induction of MSCs.
A Typical fibroblast-like cell morphology of MSCs in culture. B Oil red staining demonstrating fat drops in cell bodies following 2 w adipogenic induction. C Alizarin red staining demonstrating calcium deposition in cell matrix following 2 w osteogenic induction. Flow cytometry characterization of MSC expressed markers. Effect of borneol and MSCs transplantation on neurological deficits. At 1, 3, 7, and 14 d after MSCs transplantation, neulogical deficits were evaluated by A the neurological score, B the grip test, C the string test and D the global score.
Compared with sham group, MCAO plus saline mice showed significant increase in cerebral infarct volume Either borneol administration alone B Quantitative analysis of infarct volume.
The combination of these two C Quantitative analysis of the number of NeuN positive cells. Discussion The present study showed that intravenous infusion of MSCs in combination with borneol by gavage could more effectively improve the neurological deficits, reduce infarction volume and cell apoptosis, and enhance neurogenesis than that of MSCs alone. These data supported the hypothesis that combination use of borneol and stem cells might provide an additive neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia.
Although stem cell therapy was considered to be a promising regenerative strategy for stroke patients, its efficacy was still controversial within current clinical trials Bang, Conversely, in a phase II, multicenter, parallel group, randomized trial, intravenous administration of a mean of 2. The inconsistent results might be attributed to the state of patients, cell dosage, therapeutic window, etc.