Argentina–Spain relations - Wikipedia
Historically the Spanish-Argentina relationship has been close yet at times also with problems. Immigration and emigration between the two countries is constant . This article deals with the diplomatic affairs, foreign policy and international relations of A Spanish resistance formed an emergency government, the Supreme Central . pronounced the U.S.–Argentine alliance to be a "carnal relationship.". Macri held a private meeting with 10 Spanish business leaders following his presentation at the Alvear Hotel i.
However, the ensuing United Provinces of South America formed on the basis of the former Viceroyalty declared itself independent on 9 Julyafter Ferdinand VII was restored in During the Independence Wars no sovereign state recognized the United Provinces. In practice, each side treated the other's grievances as a "foreign policy" matter.
The Unitarian Constitution of was immediately rejected by the provinces, and a state of anarchy ensued following the Battle of Cepeda. The only cause that could regain unity among the hostile factions was the invasion of what today is Uruguay on the part of Brazilian Empire.
The common cause the crisis provided did lead to enough institutional stability to have the British Empire recognize Argentina as President James Monroe had the U. State Department done in and led to the election of the first President of Argentina.
The opportunity for unity, however, was wasted largely because the new President, Bernardino Rivadaviapushed a new Constitution even more biased towards Buenos Aires' agenda than the failed document.
The war with Brazil, moreover, went badly. Land battles were won, early on, and despite some heroic feats on the part on Irish-born Admiral Guillermo Brownthe war dragged on, resulting in bankruptcy.
This and the hated new constitution led to the end of the first republic by ; it also led, however, to peace with Brazil and the formation of an independent Uruguay.
Macri, Rajoy celebrate 'recomposition' of Argentina-Spain relationship
The murder of the man responsible for the treaty, Buenos Aires Governor Manuel Dorregoitself led to a countercoup that brought with it the promise of a lasting peace; but eventually led to destabilizing consequences. The countercoup brought in a new governor for the Buenos Aires Provincewho would in time become the leading figure of a loose confederation of Argentine Provinces the so-called Argentine Confederation.
Juan Manuel de Rosas made it his mission to stabilize Argentina in a confederacy under the tutelage of Buenos Aires Province. This led to repression, massacres of Native Americans in the Pampas and, inan international embargo over the case of a French journalist tortured to death at Rosas' orders. Having come to power avenging the murder of a man who had decided to cease interference in Uruguay, Rosas invaded Uruguay upon the election of a government there antagonistic to his personal commercial interests mainly centered in the export of cow hides and beef jerky, valuable commodities in those days.
Commercially close with the French and British Empires, Uruguay's crisis met with swift reprisals against Rosas and the Argentine Confederacy from the two mighty powers. Constitution and conflict resolution[ edit ] President Julio Roca front, 2nd from right hosts Argentine and Chilean negotiators in an bid to avoid war.
The deposition of Rosas led to Argentina's present institutional framework, outlined in the constitution. The document, drafted by a legal scholar specializing in the interpretation of the United States Constitution put forth national social and economic development as its overriding principle.
Where foreign policy was concerned, it specifically put emphasis on the need to encourage immigration and little else, save for the national defense against aggressions. Setbacks notwithstanding, the policy was successful. Domestically, Argentina was quickly transformed by immigration and foreign investment into, arguably, the most educationally and economically advanced nation in Latin America.
Whatever else was happening domestically, internationally, Argentine policy earned a reputation for pragmatism and the reliance of conflict resolution as a vehicle to advance national interests. The era's new strongman, Gen. Julio Rocawas the first Argentine leader to treat foreign policy on equal footing with foreign investment and immigration incentives, universal education and repression as instruments of national development.
His first administration occupied Patagonia and entered into an agreement with Chile to that effect and his second one commissioned archaeologist Francisco Moreno to survey an appropriate boundary between the two neighbors, which brought Chile into the historic pactsettling questions over Patagonian lands east of the Andes.
Later that year, endorsed his Foreign Secretary's successful negotiation of a debt dispute between VenezuelaFrance and Germany. Foreign Secretary Luis Drago 's proposal in this, a dispute among third parties, became the Drago Doctrinepart of international law to this day.
Signatories of the treaty ending the Chaco War gather in Buenos Aires. Foreign Minister Carlos Saavedra Lamas is at right. This success led to a joint effort between Argentina, Brazil and Chile to negotiate a peaceful resolution to the United States' occupation of Veracruz, Mexico in April That May, the three nations' foreign ministers hosted U. Since that time, the country's democratic institutions have been consolidated.
This has not, however, been matched by similarly enduring financial and economic stability. With high public approval ratings, Kirchner's government focused on restructuring Argentina's foreign debt and promoting economic growth.
- Argentina–Spain relations
- MercoPress. South Atlantic News Agency
- Foreign relations of Argentina
The government fared poorly in mid-term legislative elections held in The presidential election was won, by a small but clear margin, by opposition candidate and former Buenos Aires city mayor Mauricio Macri of the centre-right Cambiemos "Let's Change" coalition. Macri, whose government is working to address significant economic and political challenges, has moved quickly to assert his authority, making a raft of major policy announcements very early on.
The country will hold mid-term elections in October ahead of Presidential elections in October System of government Argentina is a presidential democracy, with universal suffrage and compulsory voting.
Under the current constitution last reformed inthe President is the head of state and government and the Congress is bicameral. Argentina is a federation of 23 provinces, plus Buenos Aires City, the self-governed capital.
The system of government at both the federal and provincial levels is based on the separation of powers between the Executive branch, the Legislative branch and the Judiciary.
The President and Vice-President are selecteed by direct popular vote for a four-year presidential term, and may run for one consecutive re-election.Argentine Spanish Slang Words
The President appoints the ministers, who cannot simultaneously serve in Congress. Recent developments Argentine President Mauricio Macri continues efforts to normalise the country's policy settings and rectify the economic distortions created by his predecessors, evidenced by his government receiving a critical boost after the Cambiemos alliance gained ground in the mid-term congressional elections in Octoberand strengthening his position on labour and tax law reform seen as inhibitors of economic growth.
The Macri government has a strong focus on trade and investment that has resulted in Argentina's successful bid to host the G20 inshowcasing the government's ongoing drive to re-engage with the global community. It applies a common external tariff on most products. Together the five Mercosur countries encompass approximately 72 per cent of the territory of South America Mexico is an Observer.
Brazil is Argentina's largest trading partner, followed by China and the United States. Argentina is increasingly looking to China as a source of investment, particularly in infrastructure. Bilateral relations Australia has a long-standing bilateral relationship with Argentina through trade, cooperation, tourism and people-to-people links, including student exchanges. Argentina also shares interests in international peacekeeping, the prevention of WMD proliferation, disarmament, environmental issues, agricultural trade liberalisation Cairns Group and economic cooperation.
Under the administration of President Macri, Argentine Ministers have highlighted the growing convergence with Australia on economic and trade policy matters. They are keen to enhance cooperation in mining, energy, education, science, transport, agriculture, culture, innovation and productivity.
People to people links There is strong two-way tourism trade between the two nations. Tourism has the potential to grow even further through appropriate marketing and increased air links. Air links were boosted by the December commencement of Buenos Aires-Auckland direct flights with Air New Zealand connecting to Australian cities with Virginwith code share opportunities with Latam Airways direct flights to Melbourne that commenced in October The annual cap increased on 1 July from to 1, visas per year.
There were Argentines studying in Australia in Octobera 34 per cent increase from October Australian institutions can also apply under the Endeavour Mobility Grants program to enable Australian students to have a study experience in Argentina. Australian expertise in distance education, vocational training, English as a second language and postgraduate studies is valued in Argentina - the Trades University in the province of San Luis is modelled per cent on the Victorian TAFE system.
InArgentina's national Rugby Union team was permanently included in the Rugby Championship, which sees Australia and Argentina play each other twice a year, once at home and once away.
Development assistance Argentina has been awarded 67 Australia Awards Fellowships, including fifteen at Swinburne University in for a residential program on economic reform and deregulation. Sixteen Australia Awards scholarships were awarded to Argentine students under that program.
The regional program has now closed, though some activities which have already been funded will continue until Argentina's economy is based on an abundance of natural resources, a highly literate population and an export-oriented agricultural sector. Although Argentina is an industrialised country, its exports continue to be dominated by agricultural products. In the last decade, soybeans have become the country's main commodity export. Exports of industrial goods have, however, also grown in recent years.
The introduction of measures aimed at slowing the flow of manufactured imports met with criticism as being protectionist, and caused tensions within Mercosur and with major trading partners. Inflation has remained at high levels since In and Argentina successfully renegotiated its debt with the majority of private creditors 93 per centwho agreed to receive partial repayment.
InArgentina compensated Spanish company Repsol for the seizure of its controlling stake in oil giant YPF and signed an agreement to fully repay its debt arrears with the Paris Club group of creditors.
Argentina and Spain agree to re-launch closer political and trade relations — MercoPress
The Macri administration has sought to improve export competitiveness and encourage foreign investment. The government acted quickly to implement reforms open up the Argentine economy including a unified, floating exchange rate, adjustment of tariffs and subsidies, reduction of export taxes, and deregulation of the economy to make the country more attractive to foreign investment.
The government also rapidly settled the dispute with holdout sovereign debt creditors in New York, ending default and restoring Argentina's access to international money markets. InArgentina's principal export destinations were Brazil Its major exports include agricultural products, motor vehicles and parts, chemicals and related products, crude oil and fuels and base metals.