Adenine and thymine relationship help

What is true about the relationship of Adenine and Thymine? - lifeder English

adenine and thymine relationship help

This is a little technical but not hard to understand. I think the question has to do with the pairing of DNA bases. Adenine and Thymine are always paired and. They would be the same, because one side of the DNA would have adenine and the other thymine in the same place, and they can only link to. Since Adenine binds with cuisine, the amount of A will be equal to amount of T. Thus, you can obtain the no. A and T by dividing their combined amount by 2.

Nature has yet to find a better solution than DNA for storing, expressing, and passing along instructions for making proteins. The molecular structure of DNA In order to understand the biological function of DNA, you first need to understand its molecular structure. This requires learning the vocabulary for talking about the building blocks of DNA, and how these building blocks are assembled to make DNA molecules.

Mutations: The Potential Power of a Small Change

DNA molecules are polymers Polymers are large molecules that are built up by repeatedly linking together smaller molecules, called monomers. Think of how a freight train is built by linking lots of individual boxcars together, or how this sentence is built by sticking together a specific sequence of individual letters plus spaces and punctuation.

Complementarity (molecular biology) - Wikipedia

In all three cases, the large structure—a train, a sentence, a DNA molecule—is composed of smaller structures that are linked together in non-random sequences— boxcars, letters, and, in the biological case, DNA monomers. A molecule of DNA is a bunch of nucleotide monomers, joined one after another into a very long chain. There are four nucleotide monomers The English language has a 26 letter alphabet.

They have short and easy to remember names: A, C, T, G. Each nucleotide monomer is built from three simple molecular parts: The sugar and acid in all four monomers are the same All four nucleotides A, T, G and C are made by sticking a phosphate group and a nucleobase to a sugar.

The sugar in all four nucleotides is called deoxyribose. The ring contains one oxygen and four carbons. A fifth carbon atom is attached to the fourth carbon of the ring. Deoxyribose also contains a hydroxyl group -OH attached to the third carbon in the ring. A diagram showing the three main components of a nucleotide: The phosphate group is a phosphorous atom with four oxygen atoms bonded to it.

The phosphorous atom in phosphate has a marked tendency to bond to other oxygen atoms for instance, the oxygen atom sticking off the deoxyribose sugar of another nucleotide. The four nucleotide monomers are distinguished by their bases Each type of nucleotide has a different nucleobase stuck to its deoxyribose sugar.

A nucleotide contains adenine G nucleotide contains guanine C nucleotide contains cytosine All four of these nucleobases are relatively complex molecules, with the unifying feature that they all tend to have multiple nitrogen atoms in their structures. For this reason, nucleobases are often also called nitrogenous bases.

Phosphodiester bonds are part of a larger class of electromagnetic attractions between atoms that chemists refer to as covalent bonds. In order to keep things organized, biochemists have developed a numbering system for talking about the molecular structure of nucleotides. These numbers are applied to the carbon atoms in the sugar, starting at the carbon immediately to the right of the oxygen in the deoxyribose ring, and continuing in a clockwise fashion: A diagram showing the carbons on the ribose ring numbered.

adenine and thymine relationship help

The phosphate group is attached to the 5' carbon. While the bacteria had been killed, the DNA had survived the heating process and was taken up by the II-R strain bacteria. Equipped with this gene, the former II-R strain bacteria were now protected from the host's immune system and could kill the host. These experiments are known as Hershey Chase experiments.

DNA structure and function

The existence of DNA was known to biologists sincemost of them assumed that proteins carried the information for inheritance that time. Hershey and Chase conducted their experiments on the T2 phage. The phage consists of a protein shell containing its genetic material. The phage infects a bacterium by attaching to its outer membrane and injecting its genetic material and leaving its empty shell attached to the bacterium.

DNA function & structure (with diagram) (article) | Khan Academy

In their first set of experiments, Hershey and Chase labeled the DNA of phages with radioactive Phosphorus p32 the element phosphorus is present in DNA but not present in any of the 20 amino acids which are component of proteins. They allowed the phages to infect E.

adenine and thymine relationship help

In their second set of experiments, they labeled the phages with radioactive Sulfur Sulfur is present in the amino acids cysteine and methionine, but not in DNA. Following infection of E.

adenine and thymine relationship help

After separation, the radioactive S35 tracer was observed in the protein shells, but not in the infected bacteria, supporting the hypothesis that the genetic material which infects the bacteria was DNA and not protein.

An AT base pair demonstrating two intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Two helical strands form the DNA backbone. A Adenine and thymine are base pairs. DNA or the deoxyribonucleic acid is a polymer which is made up of nucleotides as their monomers.

adenine and thymine relationship help

Each nucleotide is made up of a phosphate group, a sugar group and a nitrogenous base. The four nitrogenous bases in DNA are adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine. It is the sequence in which these bases are arranged which determines the instructions that the DNA passes from the parent to the offspring.

Hence, the genetic code is written through the nitrogenous bases. The specific characteristic of these bases is that adenine always pairs with thymine and cytosine always pairs up with guanine because their structures complement each other. Therefore, adenine and thymine are a base pair. The nitrogenous bases are complementary to each other but they are parallel to each other. They join together to form a DNA strand and one strand of DNA gets connected to the other strand in an antiparallel fashion, which means that they are parallel to each other but with opposite alignments.

The bases adenine and thymine get connected to each other to form a double helical structure of DNA by means of two hydrogen bonds between the bases and cytosine and guanine get connected by means of three hydrogen bonds.

So, the bases form a hydrogen bond, and not a covalent bond. The nitrogenous bases are not phosphates. Adenine and thymine are derived from a heterocyclic organic compound called purine and cytosine and guanine are derived from pyrimidine.

Therefore, we can conclude that about the relationship between adenine and thymine, it is not true that they antiparallel, form a covalent bond and are phosphates. However, it is true that they are a base pair.