India and Pakistan won independence in August , following a 1, kilometres away on the western side of the subcontinent [see map]. The partition of India in eventually accompanied the creation of two independent The boundary demarcating India and Pakistan came to be known as the between India and Pakistan that plagues their relationship to the present . the Bari doab (Ravi/Beas), and the Bist doab (Beas/Sutlej) (see map on the right). India and Pakistan became two separate countries in August, , with Pakistan celebrating their Independence Day on August 14 and India.
India and Pakistan were one nation before the partition took place in After the partition, India was divided into two separate countries - the Dominion of Pakistan which was further divided into the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of Bangladesh and the Union of India which later became the Republic of India. There is an international border that runs between India and Pakistan and demarcates the states of India from the four provinces of Pakistan.
The border has varied lands and distinct geographical features. From tokm of Punjab's border that touches Pakistan was fenced and flood-lit by India. Bythe Rajasthan-Pakistan border was flood-lit and fenced by India.
Although the borders of the two countries are clearly demarcated, there have been instances of attempts of smuggling and infiltration by terrorists.
Both the countries share some natural resources. Both the countries also share the Great Himalayas; it runs from west to east from the Indus valley in northern Pakistan to the Brahmaputra valley in northern India.
To know more about the boundaries of both the countries and the borders they share, you can refer to the map on this page.
The conflict, a brief but bloody war, resulted in the independence of East Pakistan. The war saw the first offensive operations undertaken by the Indian Navy against an enemy port, when Karachi harbour was attacked twice during Operation Trident and Operation Python. These attacks destroyed a significant portion of Pakistan's naval strength, whereas no Indian ship was lost.
After the surrender of Pakistani forces, East Pakistan became the independent nation of Bangladesh.
Kargil War Main article: Kargil War During the winter months ofthe Indian army vacated its posts at very high peaks in Kargil sector in Kashmir as it used to do every year. Pakistani Army intruded across the line of control and occupied the posts. Indian army discovered this in May when the snow thawed. This resulted in intense fighting between Indian and Pakistani forces, known as the Kargil conflict.
Pakistan later withdrew from the remaining portion under international pressure and high casualties. Other territorial claims You can help by adding to it. March The relations are locked in other territorial claims such as the Siachen Glacier and Kori Creek. Water is cited as one possible cause for a conflict between the two nations, but to date issues such as the Nimoo Bazgo Project have been resolved through diplomacy.
Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948
East Bengali refugees InIndia recorded close to 1 million Hindu refugees, who flooded into West Bengal and other states from East Pakistan now Bangladeshowing to communal violence, intimidation and repression from authorities. The plight of the refugees outraged Hindus and Indian nationalists, and the refugee population drained the resources of Indian states, which were unable to absorb them.
Although many Indians termed this appeasement, Nehru signed a pact with Liaquat Ali Khan that pledged both nations to the protection of minorities and creation of minority commissions.
Khan and Nehru also signed a trade agreement, and committed to resolving bilateral conflicts through peaceful means. Steadily, hundreds of thousands of Hindus returned to East Pakistan, but the thaw in relations did not last long, primarily owing to the Kashmir conflict.
Afghanistan—India relations and Afghanistan—Pakistan relations Afghanistan and Pakistan have had their own historic rivalry over their border, the Durand Linewhich numerous Afghan governments have refused to recognize as the border. This has led to strong tensions between the two countries and even military confrontationsresulting in Pakistan as victorious. Pakistan has long accused Afghanistan of harboring Baloch separatist rebels and attempting to sponsor separatist tendencies amongst its Pashtun and Baloch populations, going as far back as the s.
It has been believed that Pakistan during the s, then under Zulfikar Ali Bhuttoin retaliation began supporting Islamist factions in Afghanistan. The later Soviet intervention in Afghanistan to prevent further escalation and eventual Islamist takeover of the country proved disastrous afterwards. The United States and its allies feared direct Soviet involvement in Afghanistan and began aiding Pakistan's support for the Afghan Mujaheddin, in hopes of crippling the Soviet Union.
The Soviet-Afghan war turned out to be a stalemate with heavy casualties on all sides and costly for the Soviets.
Under international agreement, the Soviets withdrew. But various Afghan factions fought one another and their external supporters, including the Soviet Union, Iran, Pakistan and others disagreed on which should be in power.
Continued rival proxy support led to the civil warin which Pakistan supported in the Talibanseeking to secure its interests in Afghanistan and providing strategic support, while India and Afghanistan's other neighbors backed the Northern Alliance.
After the Taliban defeated the Northern Alliance in much of Afghanistan in the Afghan Civil Warthe Taliban regime continued to be supported by Pakistan — one of the three countries to do so — before the 11 September attacks. India firmly opposed the Taliban and criticized Pakistan for supporting it. India established its links with the Northern Alliance as India officially recognized their government, with the United Nations.
India's relations with AfghanistanPakistan's neighbor, and its increasing presence there has irked Pakistan. The Indian embassy bombing in Kabul was a suicide bomb terror attack on the Indian embassy in KabulAfghanistan on 7 July at 8: Bush confronted Pakistani Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani with evidence and warned him that in the case of another such attack he would have to take "serious action".
Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir According to some reports published by the Council of Foreign Relationsthe Pakistan military and the ISI have provided covert support to terrorist groups active in Kashmirincluding the al-Qaeda affiliate Jaish-e-Mohammed. Many Kashmiri militant groups also maintain their headquarters in Pakistan-administered Kashmirwhich is cited as further proof by the Indian government.
Author Gordon Thomas stated that Pakistan "still sponsored terrorist groups in the state of Kashmir, funding, training and arming them in their war on attrition against India.
Partition of India - Wikipedia
A car bomb exploded near the Jammu and Kashmir State Assembly on 1 Octoberkilling 27 people on an attack that was blamed on Kashmiri separatists. It was one of the most prominent attacks against India apart from on the Indian Parliament in December The dead bodies of the terrorists and the data recovered from them revealed that Pakistan was solely responsible for the activity. On 13 Julyarmed men believed to be a part of the Lashkar-e-Toiba threw hand grenades at the Qasim Nagar market in Srinagar and then fired on civilians standing nearby killing twenty-seven and injuring many more.
Abdul Ghani Lone, a prominent All Party Hurriyat Conference leader, was assassinated by an unidentified gunmen during a memorial rally in Srinagar.
The assassination resulted in wide-scale demonstrations against the Indian occupied-forces for failing to provide enough security cover for Mr. A car bomb exploded near an armoured Indian Army vehicle in the famous Church Lane area in Srinagar killing four Indian Army personnel, one civilian and the suicide bomber.
Terrorist group Hizbul Mujahideenclaimed responsibility for the attack. A terrorist attack on 29 July at Srinigar 's city centre, Budshah Chowk, killed two and left more than 17 people injured. Most of those injured were media journalists. No Terrorist group claimed responsibility for the attack. A terrorist attack by four heavily armed terrorists on 18 Septembernear the town of Uri in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, killed 18 and left more than 20 people injured.
It was reported as "the deadliest attack on security forces in Kashmir in two decades". India blamed Pakistan for carrying out the attacks, an allegation which Pakistan strongly denied and one that brought both nations to the brink of a nuclear confrontation in — However, international peace efforts ensured the cooling of tensions between the two nuclear-capable nations. The plane was hijacked on 24 December approximately one hour after take off and was taken to Amritsar airport and then to Lahore in Pakistan.
After refueling the plane took off for Dubai and then finally landed in KandaharAfghanistan.
Under intense media pressure, New Delhi complied with the hijackers' demand and freed Maulana Masood Azhar from its captivity in return for the freedom of the Indian passengers on the flight.
The decision, however, cost New Delhi dearly. Maulana, who is believed to be hiding in Karachilater became the leader of Jaish-e-Mohammedan organisation which has carried out several terrorist acts against Indian security forces in Kashmir. The Fort houses an Indian military unit and a high-security interrogation cell used both by the Central Bureau of Investigation and the Indian Army.